Treatment for anemia depends on the type, cause, and severity of the condition. Treatments may include dietary changes or supplements, medicines, procedures, or surgery to treat blood loss.
The goal of treatment is to increase the amount of oxygen that your blood can carry. This is done by raising the red blood cell count and/or hemoglobin level. (Hemoglobin is the iron-rich protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen to the body.)
Another goal is to treat the underlying cause of the anemia.
Dietary Changes and Supplements
Low levels of vitamins or iron in the body can cause some types of anemia. These low levels might be the result of a poor diet or certain diseases or conditions.
To raise your vitamin or iron level, your doctor may ask you to change your diet or take vitamin or iron supplements. Common vitamin supplements are vitamin B12 and folic acid (folate). Vitamin C sometimes is given to help the body absorb iron.
Your body needs iron to make hemoglobin. Your body can more easily absorb iron from meats than from vegetables or other foods. To treat your anemia, your doctor may suggest eating more meat—especially red meat (such as beef or liver), as well as chicken, turkey, pork, fish, and shellfish.
Nonmeat foods that are good sources of iron include:
- Spinach and other dark green leafy vegetables
- Peas; lentils; white, red, and baked beans; soybeans; and chickpeas
- Dried fruits, such as prunes, raisins, and apricots
- Prune juice
- Iron-fortified cereals and breads
You can look at the Nutrition Facts label on packaged foods to find out how much iron the items contain. The amount is given as a percentage of the total amount of iron you need every day.
Iron also is available as a supplement. It's usually combined with multivitamins and other minerals that help your body absorb iron.
Doctors may recommend iron supplements for premature infants, infants and young children who drink a lot of cow's milk, and infants who are fed breast milk only or formula that isn't fortified with iron.
Large amounts of iron can be harmful, so take iron supplements only as your doctor prescribes.
Low levels of vitamin B12 can lead to pernicious anemia. This type of anemia often is treated with vitamin B12 supplements.
Good food sources of vitamin B12 include:
- Breakfast cereals with added vitamin B12
- Meats such as beef, liver, poultry, and fish
- Eggs and dairy products (such as milk, yogurt, and cheese)
- Foods fortified with vitamin B12, such as soy-based beverages and vegetarian burgers
Folic acid (folate) is a form of vitamin B that's found in foods. Your body needs folic acid to make and maintain new cells. Folic acid also is very important for pregnant women. It helps them avoid anemia and promotes healthy growth of the fetus.
Good sources of folic acid include:
- Bread, pasta, and rice with added folic acid
- Spinach and other dark green leafy vegetables
- Black-eyed peas and dried beans
- Beef liver
- Bananas, oranges, orange juice, and some other fruits and juices
Vitamin C helps the body absorb iron. Good sources of vitamin C are vegetables and fruits, especially citrus fruits. Citrus fruits include oranges, grapefruits, tangerines, and similar fruits. Fresh and frozen fruits, vegetables, and juices usually have more vitamin C than canned ones.
If you're taking medicines, ask your doctor or pharmacist whether you can eat grapefruit or drink grapefruit juice. This fruit can affect the strength of a few medicines and how well they work.
Other fruits rich in vitamin C include kiwi fruit, strawberries, and cantaloupes.
Vegetables rich in vitamin C include broccoli, peppers, Brussels sprouts, tomatoes, cabbage, potatoes, and leafy green vegetables like turnip greens and spinach.
Your doctor may prescribe medicines to help your body make more red blood cells or to treat an underlying cause of anemia. Some of these medicines include:
- Antibiotics to treat infections.
- Hormones to treat heavy menstrual bleeding in teenaged and adult women.
- A man-made version of erythropoietin to stimulate your body to make more red blood cells. This hormone has some risks. You and your doctor will decide whether the benefits of this treatment outweigh the risks.
- Medicines to prevent the body's immune system from destroying its own red blood cells.
- Chelation (ke-LAY-shun) therapy for lead poisoning. Chelation therapy is used mainly in children. This is because children who have iron-deficiency anemia are at increased risk of lead poisoning.
If your anemia is severe, your doctor may recommend a medical procedure. Procedures include blood transfusions and blood and marrow stem cell transplants.
A blood transfusion is a safe, common procedure in which blood is given to you through an intravenous (IV) line in one of your blood vessels. Transfusions require careful matching of donated blood with the recipient's blood.
A blood and marrow stem cell transplant replaces your faulty stem cells with healthy ones from another person (a donor). Stem cells are made in the bone marrow. They develop into red and white blood cells and platelets.
During the transplant, which is like a blood transfusion, you get donated stem cells through a tube placed in a vein in your chest. Once the stem cells are in your body, they travel to your bone marrow and begin making new blood cells.
If you have serious or life-threatening bleeding that's causing anemia, you may need surgery. For example, you may need surgery to control ongoing bleeding due to a stomach ulcer or colon cancer.
If your body is destroying red blood cells at a high rate, you may need to have your spleen removed. The spleen is an organ that removes worn-out red blood cells from the body. An enlarged or diseased spleen may remove more red blood cells than normal, causing anemia.