Glossary of Terms


4-hydroxytamoxifen

listen (4-hy-DROK-see-tuh-MOK-sih-FEN) A form of the drug tamoxifen that is made by the body after taking tamoxifen. It can also be made in the laboratory, and may help decrease breast density. A topical form of 4-hydroxytamoxifen is being studied in breast cancer screening.

4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide

listen (4-NY-troh-KWIH-noh-leen 1-OK-side) A substance that is used in cancer research to cause tumors in laboratory animals. This is done to test new diets, drugs, and procedures for use in cancer prevention and treatment. Also called 4-NQO.

4-NQO

A substance that is used in cancer research to cause tumors in laboratory animals. This is done to test new diets, drugs, and procedures for use in cancer prevention and treatment. Also called 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide.

504 plan

listen ( plan) An education plan for students with disabilities or certain health conditions, such as cancer. By law, these students must have the same access to school programs and activities as students without disabilities. A 504 plan may include extra help in the classroom, such as allowing the student more time to take a test or finish an assignment, or to use a computer or tape recorder. It may also include tutoring and other services, such as speech therapy and physical therapy. It is covered under the U.S. law, Rehabilitation Act of 1973.

506U78

A drug used to treat certain types of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) and T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma (T-LBL). It belongs to the family of drugs called antimetabolites. Also called Arranon and nelarabine.

5-alpha reductase inhibitor

listen (5-AL-fuh ree-DUK-tays in-HIH-bih-ter) A substance that blocks an enzyme needed by the body to make dihydrotestosterone (a male sex hormone made from testosterone). Dihydrotestosterone can cause the prostate to grow. 5-alpha reductase inhibitors are used to shrink an enlarged prostate gland and to improve the flow of urine in a condition called benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). A 5-alpha reductase inhibitor is a type of enzyme inhibitor.

5-fluoro-2-deoxycytidine

listen (5-FLOOR-oh-2-dee-OK-see-SY-tih-deen) A substance being studied in the treatment of some types of cancer. It may prevent the growth of tumors by stopping cancer cells from dividing and by killing them. It is a type of antimetabolite. Also called FdCyd.

5-fluorouracil

listen (5-FLOOR-oh-YOOR-uh-sil) A drug used to treat cancers of the breast, colon, rectum, stomach, and pancreas. Under the brand names Carac, Tolak, Efudex, and Fluoroplex, it is used as a cream to treat actinic keratosis (a skin condition that may become cancer). It is also used under the brand name Efudex as a cream to treat basal cell skin cancer that is superficial (not invasive) and cannot be removed by surgery. 5-fluorouracil is being studied in the treatment of other conditions and types of cancer. It stops cells from making DNA and may kill cancer cells. 5-fluorouracil is a type of antimetabolite. Also called 5-FU, Carac, Efudex, Fluoroplex, fluorouracil, and Tolak.

5-FU

A drug used to treat cancers of the breast, colon, rectum, stomach, and pancreas. Under the brand names Carac, Tolak, Efudex, and Fluoroplex, it is used as a cream to treat actinic keratosis (a skin condition that may become cancer). It is also used under the brand name Efudex as a cream to treat basal cell skin cancer that is superficial (not invasive) and cannot be removed by surgery. 5-FU is being studied in the treatment of other conditions and types of cancer. It stops cells from making DNA and may kill cancer cells. 5-FU is a type of antimetabolite. Also called 5-fluorouracil, Carac, Efudex, Fluoroplex, fluorouracil, and Tolak.

5-FU/LV

An abbreviation for a chemotherapy combination used to treat colorectal cancer. It is also used with radiation therapy to treat esophageal cancer and stomach cancer. It includes the drugs fluorouracil and leucovorin calcium. Also called FU-LV and FU-LV regimen.

5-HT3 receptor antagonist

listen ( reh-SEP-ter an-TA-guh-nist) A type of drug used to treat certain types of irritable bowel syndrome and relieve nausea and vomiting. It is a type of antiemetic. Also called 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 receptor antagonist and type 3 serotonin receptor antagonist.

5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid

listen (5-hy-DROK-see-IN-dole-uh-SEE-tik A-sid) 5HIAA. A breakdown product of serotonin that is excreted in the urine. Serotonin is a hormone found at high levels in many body tissues. Serotonin and 5HIAA are produced in excess amounts by carcinoid tumors, and levels of these substances may be measured in the urine to test for carcinoid tumors.

5-hydroxytryptamine

listen (5-hy-DROK-see-TRIP-tuh-meen) A hormone found in the brain, platelets, digestive tract, and pineal gland. It acts both as a neurotransmitter (a substance that nerves use to send messages to one another) and a vasoconstrictor (a substance that causes blood vessels to narrow). A lack of 5-hydroxytryptamine in the brain is thought to be a cause of depression. Also called serotonin.

5-hydroxytryptamine 3 receptor antagonist

listen (5-hy-DROK-see-TRIP-tuh-meen 3 reh-SEP-ter an-TA-guh-nist) A type of drug used to treat certain types of irritable bowel syndrome and relieve nausea and vomiting. It is a type of antiemetic. Also called 5-HT3 receptor antagonist and type 3 serotonin receptor antagonist.

5Q minus syndrome

listen (...MY-nus SIN-drome) A rare disorder caused by loss of part of the long arm (Q arm) of human chromosome 5. This syndrome affects myeloid (bone marrow) cells, causing treatment-resistant anemia, and myelodysplastic syndromes that may lead to acute myelogenous leukemia. Also called 5Q- syndrome.

5Q- syndrome

listen (...SIN-drome) A rare disorder caused by loss of part of the long arm (Q arm) of human chromosome 5. This syndrome affects myeloid (bone marrow) cells, causing treatment-resistant anemia, and myelodysplastic syndromes that may lead to acute myelogenous leukemia. Also called 5Q minus syndrome.

6-hydroxymethylacylfulvene

listen (6-hy-DROK-see-MEH-thul-AY-sel-FUL-veen) A substance being studied in the treatment of some types of cancer. 6-hydroxymethylacylfulvene attaches to the cell's DNA and may block cancer cell growth. It is a type of alkylating agent. Also called irofulven.

70-gene signature

listen ( jeen SIG-nuh-cher) A test that is used to help predict whether breast cancer has spread to other parts of the body or come back. The test looks at the activity of 70 different genes in breast cancer tissue of women who have early-stage breast cancer that has not spread to the lymph nodes. If there is a high risk that the cancer will spread or come back, it may be used to help plan treatment with anticancer drugs. Also called MammaPrint.

852A

A substance being studied in the treatment of certain adult and childhood blood cancers and other types of cancer. 852A may help the patient's immune system block tumor growth. It is a type of immune system modulator.

90Y-DOTA-biotin

listen ( BY-oh-tin) A compound that contains the radioisotope yttrium Y 90 linked to the chemical biotin. Biotin is a molecule that binds strongly to the chemical streptavidin. 90Y-DOTA-biotin will find tumor cells in the body that have been targeted by an antibody linked to streptavidin and kill them. It is being studied together with CC49-streptavidin in the treatment of cancer. Also called yttrium Y 90 DOTA-biotin.

99m-Tc-Dx

A substance being studied as a way to find sentinel lymph nodes in some types of skin cancer and breast cancer. It contains a radioactive substance called technetium linked to a substance called dextran. Dextran helps technetium stay in blood and lymph vessels after it is injected. A machine or probe that detects radioactivity shows which lymph nodes near the tumor have 99m-Tc-Dx in them. It is a type of radiopharmaceutical and a type of radioimaging agent. Also called Tc-99m Dextran and technetium Tc 99m dextran.

9-cis retinoic acid

listen (... REH-tih-NOH-ik A-sid) A substance being studied in the prevention of cancer. It is a type of retinoid.

9cUAB30

A substance being studied in the treatment and prevention of cancer. It blocks an enzyme that keeps cells alive by adding material to the ends of chromosomes. Blocking this enzyme may cause the cancer cells to die. 9cUAB30 is a type of retinoic acid and a type of telomerase inhibitor.

9p21

A specific part of chromosome 9 called p21, which has a gene that may be involved in stopping tumor cell growth. In some types of cancer cells, including bladder cancer cells, this small part of chromosome 9 may be missing. This may cause cancer cell growth. Checking for 9p21 may help diagnose cancer or find out if cancer has come back. 9p21 is a type of tumor marker.

10-propargyl-10-deazaaminopterin

listen (10-proh-PAR-jil-10-dee-AY-zuh-a-mih-NOP-teh-rin) A substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called folate analogs.

11C topotecan

listen (... toh-poh-TEE-kan) A substance being studied in the treatment of certain types of cancer, including ovarian cancer and lung cancer. 11C topotecan is a radioactive form of the anticancer drug topotecan. It builds up in tumor tissues and is detected by positron emission tomography (PET). It may be used to help determine whether treatment with topotecan will work. It is a type of topoisomerase I inhibitor.

123I-MIBG

A drug containing a form of radioactive iodine called I 123 that is used to detect certain types of tumors, including pheochromocytomas and neuroblastomas. Radiation from the I 123 may help show where cancer cells are in the body. 123I-MIBG is a type of radioimaging agent and a type of radioconjugate. Also called AdreView, iobenguane I 123, and iodine I 123 metaiodobenzylguanidine.

126–F

A liquid that has been promoted as a treatment for a wide range of diseases, including cancer. The ingredients thought to be in 126F have been tested, and none of them have been shown to be effective in treating any form of cancer. 126F is not available in the United States. Also called Cancell, Cantron, Jims Juice, JS101, JS114, Protocel, and Sheridans Formula.

12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate

listen (12-O-TEH-truh-DEH-kuh-noyl-FOR-bol-13-A-seh-tayt) A substance being studied in the treatment of leukemias and lymphomas. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate affects many cell actions and may cause tumor cells to die. It is a type of phorbol ester. Also called tetradecanoylphorbol acetate and TPA.

131I-MIBG

A drug containing a form of radioactive iodine called I 131 that is used to find or treat certain types of tumors, including pheochromocytomas and neuroblastomas. It is also used to relieve pain caused by cancer that has spread to the bones. Radiation from the I 131 may help kill cancer cells or show where they are in the body. 131I-MIBG is a type of radioimaging agent and a type of radioconjugate. Also called iobenguane I 131 and iodine I 131 metaiodobenzylguanidine.

13-cis retinoic acid

listen (... REH-tih-NOH-ik A-sid) A drug that is used in the treatment of acne and psoriasis and is being studied in cancer prevention. It is a type of retinoid. Also called isotretinoin.

1572 form

listen ( form) A form that must be filed by an investigator running a clinical trial to study a new drug or agent. The investigator agrees to follow the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Code of Federal Regulations for the clinical trial. The investigator verifies that he or she has the experience and background needed to conduct the trial and that it will be done in a way that is ethical and scientifically sound. Also called Form FDA 1572-Statement of Investigator.

17-AAG

A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. It is made from an antibiotic called geldanamycin. 17-AAG helps cause the breakdown of certain proteins in the cell, and may kill cancer cells. It is a type of antineoplastic antibiotic and a type of HSP90 inhibitor. Also called 17-N-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin and tanespimycin.

17-dimethylaminoethylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin

listen (17-dy-MEH-thul-uh-MEE-noh-EH-thul-uh-MEE-noh-17-dee-meh-THOK-see-gel-DA-nuh-MY-sin) 17-DMAG. A substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called geldanamycin analogs.

17-N-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin

listen (17-N-A-lul-uh-MEE-noh-17-DEE-meh-THOK-see-gel-DA-nuh-MY-sin) A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. It is made from an antibiotic called geldanamycin. 17-N-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin helps cause the breakdown of certain proteins in the cell, and may kill cancer cells. It is a type of antineoplastic antibiotic and a type of HSP90 inhibitor. Also called 17-AAG and tanespimycin.

18F-choline

listen (... KOH-leen) A radioactive substance being studied in PET imaging to detect certain types of cancer. 18F-choline gets taken up by cells in the body and more of it is taken up by tumor cells than by normal cells. A PET scanner is used to detect which cells in the body have taken up 18F-choline. It is a type of radioimaging agent. Also called 18F-fluoromethylcholine, 18F-FMCH, and fluorine F 18 fluoromethylcholine.

18F-EF5

A substance that is being studied in positron emission tomography (PET) imaging to detect tumor hypoxia (a low level of oxygen in the tumor).This may help predict how the tumor will respond to treatment. It belongs to the family of drugs called radiopharmaceuticals. Also called fluorine F 18 EF5.

18F-FLT

A radioactive substance being studied in the diagnosis of cancer. 18F-FLT is injected into the blood and builds up in cells that are dividing, including cancer cells. The radiation that it gives off as it decays (breaks down) helps make clear pictures of tumors during positron emission tomography (PET) scans. It is a type of radiopharmaceutical. Also called 3-deoxy-3-(18F) fluorothymidine and fluorothymidine F 18.

18F-fluoromethylcholine

listen ( FLOOR-oh-MEH-thul-KOH-leen) A radioactive substance being studied in PET imaging to detect certain types of cancer. 18F-fluoromethylcholine gets taken up by cells in the body and more of it is taken up by tumor cells than by normal cells. A PET scanner is used to detect which cells in the body have taken up 18F-fluoromethylcholine. It is a type of radioimaging agent. Also called 18F-choline, 18F-FMCH, and fluorine F 18 fluoromethylcholine.

18F-fluoromisonidazole

listen ( FLOOR-oh-MY-soh-NIH-duh-zole) A radioactive substance being studied as an imaging agent in head and neck cancers and other types of cancer. It binds to large molecules in tumor cells that have a low level of oxygen. Radiation given off by 18F-fluoromisonidazole is detected by a PET scan. The amount of 18F-fluoromisonidazole in the tumor may help decide the best treatment and help predict whether the cancer will come back after treatment. 18F-fluoromisonidazole is a type of radioimaging agent. Also called 18F-MISO and FMISO.

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