Glossary of Terms


T lymphocyte

listen ( LIM-foh-site) A type of white blood cell. T lymphocytes are part of the immune system and develop from stem cells in the bone marrow. They help protect the body from infection and may help fight cancer. Also called T cell and thymocyte.

T reg

listen (... reg) A type of immune cell that blocks the actions of some other types of lymphocytes, to keep the immune system from becoming over-active. T regs are being studied in the treatment of cancer. A T reg is a type of white blood cell and a type of lymphocyte. Also called regulatory T cell, suppressor T cell, and T-regulatory cell.

t test

listen (... test) A statistical test that is used to find out if there is a real difference between the means (averages) of two different groups. It is sometimes used to see if there is a significant difference in response to treatment between groups in a clinical trial.

T138067

An anticancer drug that belongs to the family of drugs called mitotic inhibitors. It inhibits the growth of cancer cells by preventing cell division.

T-3

A thyroid hormone. Also called triiodothyronine.

T4

A hormone that is made by the thyroid gland and contains iodine. T4 increases the rate of chemical reactions in cells and helps control growth and development. T4 can also be made in the laboratory and is used to treat thyroid disorders. Also called L-3,5,5-tetraiodothyronine, thyroxin, and thyroxine.

T4N5 liposomal lotion

listen (... LY-poh-SOH-mul LOH-shun) A lotion being studied in the treatment of skin cancer and a skin condition called xeroderma pigmentosum. It has an enzyme contained in very tiny, fat-like particles. The enzyme repairs damage caused by ultraviolet radiation. T4N5 liposomal lotion is a type of DNA repair enzyme topical agent. Also called Dimericine.

T900607

A substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called tubulin-binding agents.

Tabloid

listen (TAB-loyd) A drug used to treat acute myeloid leukemia (AML). It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Tabloid stops cells from making DNA and RNA and it may kill cancer cells. It is a type of antimetabolite. Also called thioguanine.

TAC

An abbreviation for a chemotherapy combination used with other types of therapy to treat breast cancer. It includes the drugs docetaxel (Taxotere), doxorubicin hydrochloride (Adriamycin), and cyclophosphamide. Also called TAC regimen.

TAC regimen

listen ( REH-jih-men) An abbreviation for a chemotherapy combination used with other types of therapy to treat breast cancer. It includes the drugs docetaxel (Taxotere), doxorubicin hydrochloride (Adriamycin), and cyclophosphamide. Also called TAC.

TAC-101

A substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It belongs to the families of drugs called synthetic retinoids and angiogenesis inhibitors.

TACE

listen A procedure in which the blood supply to a tumor is blocked after anticancer drugs are given in blood vessels near the tumor. Sometimes, the anticancer drugs are attached to small beads that are injected into an artery that feeds the tumor. The beads block blood flow to the tumor as they release the drug. This allows a higher amount of drug to reach the tumor for a longer period of time, which may kill more cancer cells. It also causes fewer side effects because very little of the drug reaches other parts of the body. TACE is used to treat liver cancer. Also called chemoembolization and transarterial chemoembolization.

tachycardia

listen (TA-kih-KAR-dee-uh) Rapid beating of the heart, usually defined as greater than 100 beats per minute.

tachypnea

listen (TA-kip-NEE-uh) Rapid breathing.

tacrolimus

listen (tak-ROH-lih-mus) A drug used to help reduce the risk of rejection by the body of organ and bone marrow transplants.

tadalafil

listen (tuh-DA-luh-fil) A drug used to treat erectile dysfunction. It is also being studied in the treatment of sexual problems in patients treated with radiation or surgery for prostate cancer. Tadalafil blocks the action of a certain enzyme, which can result in increased blood flow to the penis, causing an erection. It is a type of cGMP phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitor. Also called Cialis.

TAE

A procedure in which the blood supply to a tumor or an abnormal area of tissue is blocked. During TAE, a small incision (cut) is made in the inner thigh and a catheter (thin, flexible tube) is inserted and guided into an artery near the tumor or abnormal tissue. Once the catheter is in place, small particles made of tiny gelatin sponges or beads are injected. This blocks the artery and stops the flow of blood to the tumor or abnormal area of tissue. TAE is used to treat some types of liver cancer, kidney cancer, and neuroendocrine tumors. It may also be used to treat uterine fibroids, aneurysms, and other conditions. Also called arterial embolization and transarterial embolization.

Tafinlar

listen (TA-fin-lar) A drug used alone or with trametinib to treat melanoma that cannot be removed by surgery or has spread to other parts of the body. It is used in patients with a mutated (changed) form of a cell protein called BRAF. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Tafinlar blocks this mutated protein, which may help keep cancer cells from growing and may kill them. It is a type of kinase inhibitor and a type of targeted therapy. Also called dabrafenib.

TAG-72 antigen

listen (... AN-tih-jen) A protein/sugar complex found on the surface of many cancer cells, including breast, colon, and pancreatic cells.

Tagrisso

listen (tuh-GRIH-soh) A drug used to treat non-small cell lung cancer that has spread to other parts of the body. It is used in patients whose cancer has a mutated (changed) form of a cell protein called epidermal growth factor receptor and whose disease got worse during or after treatment with an anticancer drug that blocks EGFR. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Tagrisso blocks this mutated protein, which may help keep cancer cells from growing and may kill them. It is a type of kinase inhibitor. Also called osimertinib.

tai chi

listen (ty chee) A form of traditional Chinese mind/body exercise and meditation that uses slow sets of body movements and controlled breathing. Tai chi is done to improve balance, flexibility, muscle strength, and overall health.

tailbone

listen (TAYL-bone) The small bone at the bottom of the spine. It is made up of 3-5 fused bones. Also called coccyx.

tailored intervention

listen (TAY-lurd IN-ter-VEN-shun) The use of communication, drugs, or other types of treatments that are specific for an individual or a group to improve health or change behavior.

talabostat

listen (tal-A-boh-stat) A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer, including certain types of lung, pancreas, and brain cancer. Talabostat may help the immune system block the growth of cancer cells. It may also increase the growth of new blood cells. It is a type of enzyme inhibitor. Also called PT-100 and talabostat mesylate.

talabostat mesylate

listen (tal-A-boh-stat MEH-zih-layt) A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer, including certain types of lung, pancreas, and brain cancer. Talabostat mesylate may help the immune system block the growth of cancer cells. It may also increase the growth of new blood cells. It is a type of enzyme inhibitor. Also called PT-100 and talabostat.

talactoferrin

listen (tuh-LAK-toh-FAYR-in) A drug being studied in the treatment of kidney cancer that has spread. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer and other conditions. Talactoferrin increases the activity of dendritic cells (a type of immune cell) to help kill cancer cells. It is a form of human lactoferrin (a protein found in milk, tears, mucus, bile, and some white blood cells) that is made in the laboratory. Talactoferrin is a type of recombinant protein and a type of immunomodulatory protein. Also called talactoferrin alfa and TLF.

talactoferrin alfa

listen (tuh-LAK-toh-FAYR-in AL-fuh) A drug being studied in the treatment of kidney cancer that has spread. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer and other conditions. Talactoferrin alfa increases the activity of dendritic cells (a type of immune cell) to help kill cancer cells. It is a form of human lactoferrin (a protein found in milk, tears, mucus, bile, and some white blood cells) that is made in the laboratory. Talactoferrin alfa is a type of recombinant protein and a type of immunomodulatory protein. Also called talactoferrin and TLF.

talampanel

listen (tuh-LAM-puh-nel) A substance that is being studied in the treatment of brain tumors and other brain disorders, such as epilepsy and Parkinson disease. It is a type of AMPA receptor antagonist.

talaporfin sodium

listen (ta-luh-POR-fin SOH-dee-um) A drug used in photodynamic therapy. When absorbed by cancer cells and exposed to light, the drug becomes active and kills the cancer cells.

talc

listen A mineral, usually used in a powdered form. In cancer treatment, sterile talc is used to prevent pleural effusions (an abnormal collection of fluid in the space between the lungs and the chest wall). Talc is inserted into the space, causing it to close up, so fluid cannot collect there. Also called sterile talc powder.

talimogene laherparepvec

listen (tah-LIH-moh-jeen lah-HER-pah-REP-vek) A drug used to treat melanoma that has recurred (come back) after surgery. It is used in patients whose cancer is in the skin and lymph nodes and cannot be removed by surgery. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Talimogene laherparepvec is made with a form of the herpesvirus that has been changed in the laboratory to infect and break down cancer cells without harming normal cells. It may also help the immune system kill cancer cells. Talimogene laherparepvec is injected directly into tumors in the skin and lymph nodes. It is a type of oncolytic virus therapy. Also called Imlygic and T-VEC.

talk therapy

listen (...THAYR-uh-pee) Treatment of mental, emotional, personality, and behavioral disorders using methods such as discussion, listening, and counseling. Also called psychotherapy.

talotrexin

listen (ta-loh-TREK-sin) A substance that is being studied in the treatment of leukemia and some other types of cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called antifolates.

Tamiflu

listen (TA-mih-floo) A drug used to prevent and to treat influenza virus infections. It blocks the release of the virus from infected cells. It is a type of antiviral agent. Also called oseltamivir phosphate.

tamoxifen

listen (tuh-MOK-sih-FEN) A drug used to treat certain types of breast cancer in women and men. It is also used to prevent breast cancer in women who have had ductal carcinoma in situ (abnormal cells in the ducts of the breast) and in women who are at a high risk of developing breast cancer. Tamoxifen is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. It blocks the effects of the hormone estrogen in the breast. Tamoxifen is a type of antiestrogen. Also called tamoxifen citrate.

tamoxifen citrate

listen (tuh-MOK-sih-FEN SIH-trayt) A drug used to treat certain types of breast cancer in women and men. It is also used to prevent breast cancer in women who have had ductal carcinoma in situ (abnormal cells in the ducts of the breast) and in women who are at a high risk of developing breast cancer. Tamoxifen citrate is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. It blocks the effects of the hormone estrogen in the breast. Tamoxifen citrate is a type of antiestrogen. Also called tamoxifen.

tamsulosin

listen (tam-SOO-loh-sin) A drug used to treat urinary problems caused by an enlarged prostate. Tamsulosin relaxes the muscles of the prostate and bladder, which helps the flow of urine. It is a type of alpha blocker. Also called Flomax and tamsulosin hydrochloride.

tamsulosin hydrochloride

listen (tam-SOO-loh-sin HY-droh-KLOR-ide) A drug used to treat urinary problems caused by an enlarged prostate. Tamsulosin hydrochloride relaxes the muscles of the prostate and bladder, which helps the flow of urine. It is a type of alpha blocker. Also called Flomax and tamsulosin.

tandutinib

listen (tan-DOO-tih-nib) A substance being studied in the treatment of some types of cancer. It may stop cancer cell growth by blocking certain enzymes. It may also prevent the growth of new blood vessels that tumors need to grow. It is a type of tyrosine kinase inhibitor and a type of antiangiogenesis agent. Also called CT53518 and MLN518.

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