Glossary of Terms


ob/gyn

A branch of medicine that specializes in the care of women during pregnancy and childbirth and in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the female reproductive organs. It also specializes in other womens health issues, such as menopause, hormone problems, contraception (birth control), and infertility. Also called obstetrics and gynecology.

obatoclax

listen (oh-BA-toh-klax) A substance being studied in the treatment of several types of cancer. Obatoclax blocks the actions of certain proteins that cells need to live and it may kill cancer cells. It is a type of apoptosis inducer, a BCL2 protein antagonist, and a BH3 mimetic.

obatoclax mesylate

listen (oh-BA-toh-klax MEH-zih-layt) A substance being studied in the treatment of several types of cancer. It is a form of obatoclax, which blocks the activity of certain proteins needed for cells to live and may cause tumor cells to die. It is a type of apoptosis inducer.

obese

listen (oh-BEES) Having an abnormally high, unhealthy amount of body fat.

obesity

listen (oh-BEE-sih-tee) A condition marked by an abnormally high, unhealthy amount of body fat.

obinutuzumab

listen (OH-bin-yoo-TOO-zoo-mab) A drug used with bendamustine to treat follicular lymphoma that has come back or has not gotten better after treatment with rituximab. It is also used with chlorambucil to treat chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) that has not already been treated. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Obinutuzumab binds to a protein called CD20, which is found on B cells (a type of white blood cell) and some types of leukemia and lymphoma cells. This may help the immune system kill cancer cells. Obinutuzumab is a type of monoclonal antibody. Also called Gazyva.

objective improvement

listen (ub-JEK-tiv im-PROOV-ment) An improvement that can be measured by the health care provider (for example, when a tumor shrinks or there are fewer cancer cells in the blood).

objective response

listen (ub-JEK-tiv reh-SPONTS) A measurable response.

oblimersen sodium

listen (oh-blih-MER-sen SOH-dee-um) A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. It may kill cancer cells by blocking the production of a protein that makes cancer cells live longer and by making them more sensitive to anticancer drugs. It is a type of antisense oligodeoxyribonucleotide. Also called augmerosen, bcl-2 antisense oligodeoxynucleotide G3139, and Genasense.

observation

listen (OB-ser-VAY-shun) In medicine, watching a patients condition but not giving treatment unless symptoms appear or change.

observational study

listen (OB-ser-VAY-shuh-nul STUH-dee) A type of study in which individuals are observed or certain outcomes are measured. No attempt is made to affect the outcome (for example, no treatment is given).

obsessive-compulsive disorder

listen (ob-SEH-siv-kum-PUL-siv dis-OR-der) An anxiety disorder in which a person has intrusive ideas, thoughts, or images that occur repeatedly, and in which he or she feels driven to perform certain behaviors over and over again. For example, a person may worry all the time about germs and so will wash his or her hands over and over again. Having an obsessive-compulsive disorder may cause a person to have trouble carrying out daily activities.

obstetrician

listen (OB-steh-TRIH-shun) A doctor who specializes in caring for women during pregnancy and childbirth. Obstetricians also care for the fetus (unborn baby), treat problems with pregnancy, and deliver babies.

obstetrics and gynecology

listen (ob-STEH-trix ... GY-neh-KAH-loh-jee) A branch of medicine that specializes in the care of women during pregnancy and childbirth and in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the female reproductive organs. It also specializes in other womens health issues, such as menopause, hormone problems, contraception (birth control), and infertility. Also called ob/gyn.

obstruction

listen (ub-STRUK-shun) Blockage of a passageway.

obtundation

listen (ob-tun-DAY-shun) A dulled or reduced level of alertness or consciousness.

occult primary tumor

listen (uh-KULT PRY-mayr-ee TOO-mer) Cancer in which the site of the primary (original) tumor cannot be found. Most metastases from occult primary tumors are found in the head and neck.

occult stage non-small cell lung cancer

listen (uh-KULT ... sel lung KAN-ser) Cancer cells are found in sputum (mucus coughed up from the lungs), but no tumor can be found in the lung by imaging tests or bronchoscopy, or the tumor is too small to be checked.

occupational therapist

listen (AH-kyoo-PAY-shuh-nul THAYR-uh-pist) A health professional trained to help people who are ill or disabled learn to manage their daily activities.

OCT

A procedure that uses infrared light waves to give three-dimensional (3-D) pictures of structures inside tissues and organs. The pictures are made by a computer linked to the light source. Also called optical coherence tomography.

octreotide

listen (ok-TREE-oh-tide) A drug similar to the naturally occurring growth hormone inhibitor somatostatin. Octreotide is used to treat diarrhea and flushing associated with certain types of tumors.

octreotide scan

listen (ok-TREE-oh-tide skan) A type of radionuclide scan used to find carcinoid and other types of tumors. Radioactive octreotide, a drug similar to somatostatin, is injected into a vein and travels through the bloodstream. The radioactive octreotide attaches to tumor cells that have receptors for somatostatin. A radiation-measuring device detects the radioactive octreotide, and makes pictures showing where the tumor cells are in the body. Also called somatostatin receptor scintigraphy and SRS.

ocular melanoma

listen (AH-kyoo-ler MEH-luh-NOH-muh) A rare cancer of melanocytes (cells that produce the pigment melanin) found in the eye. Also called intraocular melanoma.

odds ratio

listen ( RAY-shee-oh) A measure of the odds of an event happening in one group compared to the odds of the same event happening in another group. In cancer research, odds ratios are most often used in case-control (backward looking) studies to find out if being exposed to a certain substance or other factor increases the risk of cancer. For example, researchers may study a group of individuals with cancer (cases) and another group without cancer (controls) to see how many people in each group were exposed to a certain substance or factor. They calculate the odds of exposure in both groups and then compare the odds. An odds ratio of one means that both groups had the same odds of exposure and, therefore, the exposure probably does not increase the risk of cancer. An odds ratio of greater than one means that the exposure may increase the risk of cancer, and an odds ratio of less than one means that the exposure may reduce the risk of cancer. Also called relative odds.

Odomzo

listen (oh-DOM-zoh) A drug used to treat locally advanced basal cell carcinoma (BCC) that has come back after surgery or radiation therapy. It is also used in patients who cannot be treated with surgery or radiation therapy. Odomzo is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Odomzo blocks a type of protein involved in tissue growth and repair and may block the growth of cancer cells. It is a type of hedgehog signaling pathway antagonist. Also called erismodegib, LDE225, and sonidegib.

odor

listen (OH-der) A smell.

odorant

listen (OH-deh-runt) A substance that gives off a smell.

OEPA

An abbreviation for a chemotherapy combination that is often used with radiation therapy to treat a certain type of childhood Hodgkin lymphoma in males. It includes the drugs vincristine sulfate (Oncovin), etoposide, prednisone, and doxorubicin hydrochloride (Adriamycin). Also called OEPA regimen.

OEPA regimen

listen ( REH-jih-men) An abbreviation for a chemotherapy combination that is often used with radiation therapy to treat a certain type of childhood Hodgkin lymphoma in males. It includes the drugs vincristine sulfate (Oncovin), etoposide, prednisone, and doxorubicin hydrochloride (Adriamycin). Also called OEPA.

ofatumumab

listen (OH-fa-TOO-moo-mab) A drug used to treat chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) that has not gotten better with other anticancer drugs. It is also used with chlorambucil in patients who have not already been treated and cannot receive certain anticancer drugs. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Ofatumumab binds to a protein called CD20, which is found on B cells (a type of white blood cell) and some types of leukemia and lymphoma cells. This may help the immune system kill cancer cells. Ofatumumab is a type of monoclonal antibody. Also called Arzerra and HuMax-CD20.

OFF

An abbreviation for a chemotherapy combination used to treat pancreatic cancer. It includes the drugs oxaliplatin, fluorouracil, and leucovorin (folinic acid). Also called OFF regimen.

OFF regimen

listen ( REH-jih-men) An abbreviation for a chemotherapy combination used to treat pancreatic cancer. It includes the drugs oxaliplatin, fluorouracil, and leucovorin (folinic acid). Also called OFF.

Office for Human Research Protections

listen (AH-fis HYOO-mun REE-serch proh-TEK-shuns) The office within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) that protects the rights, welfare, and well-being of people involved in clinical trials. It also makes sure that the research follows the law 45 CFR 46 (Protection of Human Subjects). Also called OHRP.

off-label

listen (... LAY-bel) Describes the legal use of a prescription drug to treat a disease or condition for which the drug has not been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

ofloxacin

listen (oh-FLOK-suh-sin) An antibiotic drug used to treat infection. It belongs to the family of drugs called quinolone antibiotics.

OGF

A substance that relieves pain and is being studied in the treatment of some types of cancer. OGFs bind to cells in the body, including tumor cells, which have OGF receptors on the surface. This may help stop the growth of the tumor cells. It may also prevent the growth of blood vessels that tumors need to grow. An OGF is a type of biological response modifier and a type of antiangiogenesis agent. Also called opioid growth factor.

OGX-011

A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. It blocks the production of a protein called clusterin, which helps cells live longer. This may kill cancer cells that need clusterin to grow. It may also make cells more sensitive to anticancer drugs. It is a type of antisense oligonucleotide, and a type of chemosensitizing agent. Also called custirsen sodium.

OHRP

The office within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) that protects the rights, welfare, and well-being of people involved in clinical trials. It also makes sure that the research follows the law 45 CFR 46 (Protection of Human Subjects). Also called Office for Human Research Protections.

ointment

listen (OYNT-ment) A substance used on the skin to soothe or heal wounds, burns, rashes, scrapes, or other skin problems. Also called unguent.

olanzapine

listen (oh-LAN-zuh-peen) A drug used to treat certain mental disorders. It is also being studied in the treatment of nausea and vomiting caused by some cancer treatments. It is a type of antipsychotic and a type of monoamine antagonist. Also called Zyprexa and Zyprexa Zydis.

Next Page