Glossary of Terms


IBMFS

Inherited bone marrow failure syndrome. A rare disorder in which a persons bone marrow is unable to make enough blood cells and there is a family history of the same disorder. There are several different inherited bone marrow failure syndromes. Patients with an IBMFS are at high risk of forming acute leukemia or certain solid tumors. Also called inherited bone marrow failure syndrome.

Ibrance

listen (I-brans) A drug used to treat hormone-receptor positive (HR+), HER2 negative (HER2-) breast cancer that is advanced or has spread to other parts of the body. It is used with fulvestrant in women whose disease has gotten worse after treatment with hormone therapy. It is used with letrozole in postmenopausal women who have not been treated with hormone therapy. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Ibrance blocks certain proteins, which may help keep cancer cells from growing. It is a type of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor. Also called palbociclib.

ibritumomab tiuxetan

listen (ih-brih-TOO-moh-mab ty-UK-seh-tan) A monoclonal antibody that is used to treat certain types of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma and is being studied in the treatment and detection of other types of B-cell tumors. Monoclonal antibodies are made in the laboratory and can locate and bind to substances in the body, including cancer cells. Ibritumomab binds to the protein called CD20, which is found on B cells. It is linked to the compound tiuxetan. This allows certain radioisotopes to be attached before it is given to a patient. It is a type of monoclonal antibody-chelator conjugate. Also called Zevalin.

ibrutinib

listen (i-BROO-tih-nib) A drug used to treat Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia (a type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma). It is also used to treat mantle cell lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) in patients who have already received other treatment. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Ibrutinib blocks a protein called Brutons tyrosine kinase (BTK), which may help keep cancer cells from growing. It is a type of tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Also called Imbruvica.

IBS

A disorder of the intestines commonly marked by abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in a persons bowel habits. This may include diarrhea or constipation, or both, with one occurring after the other. Also called irritable bowel syndrome, irritable colon, mucus colitis, and spastic colon.

ibuprofen

listen (I-byoo-PROH-fen) A drug used to treat fever, swelling, pain, and redness by preventing the body from making a substance that causes inflammation. It is a type of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). Also called Advil and Motrin.

ICD

A small device used to correct a heartbeat that is abnormal (too fast, too slow, or irregular). The device is placed by surgery in the chest or abdomen. Wires are passed through a vein to connect the device to the heart. When it detects abnormal heartbeats, it sends an electrical shock to the heart to restore the heartbeat to normal. Also called implantable cardioverter-defibrillator.

ICE

listen An abbreviation for a chemotherapy combination that is used to treat non-Hodgkin and Hodgkin lymphomas that have come back and do not respond to other treatments. It includes the drugs ifosfamide, carboplatin, and etoposide phosphate. Also called ICE regimen.

ICE regimen

listen ( REH-jih-men) An abbreviation for a chemotherapy combination that is used to treat non-Hodgkin and Hodgkin lymphomas that have come back and do not respond to other treatments. It includes the drugs ifosfamide, carboplatin, and etoposide phosphate. Also called ICE.

ICI 182780

A drug used to treat certain types of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. ICI 182780 blocks estrogen activity in the body and is a type of antiestrogen. Also called Faslodex and fulvestrant.

ICI D1694

An anticancer drug that stops tumor cells from growing by blocking the ability of cells to make DNA. It belongs to the family of drugs called thymidylate synthase inhibitors. Also called raltitrexed.

Iclusig

listen (i-KLOO-sig) A drug used to treat chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia. It is used in patients who are not able to take or have not gotten better after treatment with other anticancer drugs. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Iclusig blocks BCR-ABL and other proteins, which may help keep cancer cells from growing and may kill them. It may also prevent the growth of new blood vessels that tumors need to grow. It is a type of tyrosine kinase inhibitor and a type of angiogenesis inhibitor. Also called ponatinib hydrochloride.

Idamycin

listen (I-duh-MY-sin) A drug used with other drugs to treat acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Idamycin blocks a certain enzyme needed for cell division and DNA repair, and it may kill cancer cells. It is a type of anthracycline antibiotic and a type of topoisomerase inhibitor. Also called 4-demethoxydaunorubicin and idarubicin hydrochloride.

idarubicin hydrochloride

listen (I-duh-ROO-bih-sin HY-droh-KLOR-ide) A drug used with other drugs to treat acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Idarubicin hydrochloride blocks a certain enzyme needed for cell division and DNA repair, and it may kill cancer cells. It is a type of anthracycline antibiotic and a type of topoisomerase inhibitor. Also called 4-demethoxydaunorubicin and Idamycin.

IDEC-Y2B8

A drug used with the drug rituximab to treat certain types of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of B-cell tumors. IDEC-Y2B8 contains a monoclonal antibody that binds to a protein called CD20, which is found on B cells. It also contains a radioactive substance called yttrium Y 90, which may help kill cancer cells. IDEC-Y2B8 is a type of radioimmunoconjugate. Also called Y 90 ibritumomab tiuxetan, Y 90 Zevalin, and yttrium Y 90 ibritumomab tiuxetan.

idelalisib

listen (i-deh-luh-LIH-sib) A drug used with rituximab to treat chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) that has come back. It is also used to treat follicular B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL) that have come back after treatment with other anticancer therapy. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Idelalisib blocks certain proteins, which may help keep cancer cells from growing and may kill them. It is a type of kinase inhibitor. Also called Zydelig.

idiopathic

listen (IH-dee-oh-PA-thik) Describes a disease of unknown cause.

idiopathic myelofibrosis

listen (IH-dee-oh-PA-thik MY-eh-loh-fy-BROH-sis) A progressive, chronic disease in which the bone marrow is replaced by fibrous tissue and blood is made in organs such as the liver and the spleen, instead of in the bone marrow. This disease is marked by an enlarged spleen and progressive anemia. Also called agnogenic myeloid metaplasia, chronic idiopathic myelofibrosis, myelosclerosis with myeloid metaplasia, and primary myelofibrosis.

idiopathic pneumonia syndrome

listen (IH-dee-oh-PA-thik noo-MOH-nyuh SIN-drome) A set of pneumonia-like symptoms (such as fever, chills, coughing, and breathing problems) that occur with no sign of infection in the lung. Idiopathic pneumonia syndrome is a serious condition that can occur after a stem cell transplant.

idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

listen (IH-dee-oh-PA-thik PUL-muh-NAYR-ee fy-BROH-sis) A disease in which the alveoli (tiny air sacs at the end of the bronchioles in the lungs) are overgrown with fibrous tissue. The cause of the disease is unknown and it gets worse over time. Symptoms include difficult, painful breathing and shortness of breath.

idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura

listen (IH-dee-oh-PA-thik THROM-boh-sy-toh-PEE-nik PUR-pyoo-ruh) A condition in which platelets (blood cells that cause blood clots to form) are destroyed by the immune system. The low platelet count causes easy bruising and bleeding, which may be seen as purple areas in the skin, mucous membranes, and outer linings of organs. Also called immune thrombocytopenic purpura and ITP.

idoxifene

listen (i-DOK-sih-feen) A drug that blocks the effects of estrogen.

idoxuridine

listen (I-dox-YOOR-ih-deen) A drug that reduces the risk of cancer cell growth by interfering with the cells' DNA.

IEP

An education plan for children with certain disabilities or health conditions, such as cancer. By law, these children must receive special education services and other support they need in school. An IEP describes which special services the child needs and how those needs will be met. This may include special class placement, extra help with class assignments and tests, tutoring, and other services such as counseling, speech therapy, and physical therapy. IEPs are covered in the U.S. law, Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Also called individualized education plan.

IFA

A mixture of oil and water that is combined with a specific antigen to boost the immune response to that antigen. It is being studied in immunotherapy and as a way to increase the immune response to cancer vaccines. It is a type of immune modulator. Also called incomplete Freund's adjuvant and Montanide ISA-51.

Ifex

listen (I-fex) A drug that is used with other drugs to treat germ cell testicular cancer that did not respond to previous treatment with other drugs. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Ifex attaches to DNA in cells and may kill cancer cells. It is a type of alkylating agent and a type of antimetabolite. Also called ifosfamide.

IFN alpha-2B

listen ( AL-fuh ) A drug used to treat AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma in certain patients, hairy cell leukemia, and melanoma that has been removed by surgery. It is also used with other anticancer drugs to treat a certain type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. IFN alpha-2B is also used to treat some infections caused by viruses, such as the hepatitis C virus. It is being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer and other conditions. IFN alpha-2B is a form of interferon alfa (a substance normally made by cells in the immune system) and is made in the laboratory. It is a type of cytokine and a type of biological response modifier. Also called interferon alfa-2b, Intron A, and recombinant interferon alfa-2b.

iFOBT

A test that checks for occult (hidden) blood in the stool. Small samples of stool are placed on special cards and sent to a doctor or laboratory for testing. An antibody that binds to a blood protein called hemoglobin is used to detect any blood. Blood in the stool may be a sign of colorectal cancer or other problems, such as polyps, ulcers, or hemorrhoids. Also called fecal immunochemical test, FIT, immunoassay fecal occult blood test, immunochemical fecal occult blood test, and immunologic fecal occult blood test.

ifosfamide

listen (i-FOS-fuh-mide) A drug that is used with other drugs to treat germ cell testicular cancer that did not respond to previous treatment with other drugs. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Ifosfamide attaches to DNA in cells and may kill cancer cells. It is a type of alkylating agent and a type of antimetabolite. Also called Ifex.

Ig

listen (I-jee) A protein that is made by B cells and plasma cells (types of white blood cells) and helps the body fight infection. Some Igs may be found in higher than normal amounts in patients with certain conditions or certain types of cancer, including multiple myeloma and Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia. Measuring the amount of specific Igs in the blood and urine may help diagnose cancer or find out how well treatment is working or if cancer has come back. Some Igs may be used as tumor markers. Also called immunoglobulin.

IGF

A protein made by the body that stimulates the growth of many types of cells. IGF is similar to insulin (a hormone made in the pancreas). There are two forms of IGF called IGF-1 and IGF-2. Higher than normal levels of IGF-1 may increase the risk of several types of cancer. IGF is a type of growth factor and a type of cytokine. Also called insulin-like growth factor and somatomedin.

IGF-1R inhibitor OSI-906

listen ( in-HIH-bih-ter ...) A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. It blocks a protein called IGF-1R, which is found at high levels in some types of tumors. IGF-1R is needed for cell growth and blocking it may cause tumor cells to die. IGF-1R inhibitor OSI-906 is a type of IGF-1R inhibitor. Also called OSI-906.

IGFR

A protein found on the surface of some types of cells that binds to insulin-like growth factor (IGF). This causes the cells to grow and divide. IGFR is found at high levels on the surface of several types of cancer cells, which causes these cells to grow rapidly in the presence of IGF. Also called insulin-like growth factor receptor.

IgG-RFT5-dgA

A monoclonal antibody linked to a toxic substance. It is being studied in the treatment of melanoma that has spread to distant parts of the body. IgG-RFT5-dgA is made in the laboratory. It can find and kill certain white blood cells that prevent the immune system from killing cancer cells. Also called RFT5-dgA immunotoxin.

IGRT

A procedure that uses a computer to create a picture of a tumor to help guide the radiation beam during radiation therapy. The pictures are made using CT, ultrasound, X-ray, or other imaging techniques. IGRT makes radiation therapy more accurate and causes less damage to healthy tissue. Also called image-guided radiation therapy.

IH636 grape seed extract

listen ( grayp seed EK-strakt) A substance being studied for its ability to prevent damage to normal tissue caused by radiation therapy. It is a type of antioxidant.

IL

One of a group of related proteins made by leukocytes (white blood cells) and other cells in the body. ILs regulate immune responses. ILs made in the laboratory are used as biological response modifiers to boost the immune system in cancer therapy. An interleukin is a type of cytokine. Also called interleukin.

IL-1

One of a group of related proteins made by leukocytes (white blood cells) and other cells in the body. IL-1 is made mainly by one type of white blood cell, the macrophage, and helps another type of white blood cell, the lymphocyte, fight infections. It also helps leukocytes pass through blood vessel walls to sites of infection and causes fever by affecting areas of the brain that control body temperature. There are two forms of IL-1, alpha and beta, which act the same. IL-1 made in the laboratory is used as a biological response modifier to boost the immune system in cancer therapy. IL-1 is a type of cytokine. Also called interleukin-1.

IL-10

One of a group of related proteins made by leukocytes (white blood cells) and other cells in the body. IL-10 is made by activated macrophages and by some T lymphocytes. It reduces inflammation by blocking production of cytokines by immune cells. IL-10 also increases antibody production by plasma cells and helps them live longer. IL-10 made in the laboratory is used as a biological response modifier to boost the immune system. It is a type of cytokine. Also called interleukin-10.

IL-11

One of a group of related proteins made by leukocytes (white blood cells) and other cells in the body. IL-11 is made by support cells in the bone marrow. It causes the growth of several types of blood cells. Oprelvekin (IL-11 made in the laboratory) is used as a biological response modifier to increase the number of platelets, especially in patients receiving chemotherapy for cancer. IL-11 is a type of cytokine. Also called interleukin-11.

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