Drug Dictionary


T900607

A pentafluorophenylsulfonamide compound with potential antineoplastic activity. T900607 inhibits tubulin polymerization by binding irreversibly to colchicine binding sites, resulting in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

tabalumab

A human IgG4 monoclonal antibody against B-cell activating factor (BAFF), with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Tabalumab binds to and inhibits the activity of both soluble and cell surface-bound BAFF. This may reduce the activity, proliferation and survival of B-cells. A dysregulated expression of BAFF, a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family of proteins, is often seen in certain autoimmune diseases and certain cancers, and may promote B lymphocyte activation, proliferation and survival. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Tabloid

(Other name for: thioguanine)

TAC regimen

An combination chemotherapy regimen consisting of docetaxel (Taxotere), doxorubicin hydrochloride (Adriamycin) and cyclophosphamide used in the adjuvant setting for the treatment of breast cancer. (NCI Thesaurus)

tacedinaline

An orally bioavailable substituted benzamide derivative with potential antineoplastic activity. Tacedinaline inhibits histone deacetylation, which may result in histone hyperacetylation, followed by the induction of differentiation, the inhibition of cell proliferation, and apoptosis in susceptible tumor cell populations. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

TachoSil

(Other name for: absorbable fibrin sealant patch)

tacrolimus

A macrolide isolated from the fungus Streptomyces tsukubaensis. Tacrolimus binds to the FKBP-12 protein and forms a complex with calcium-dependent proteins, thereby inhibiting calcineurin phosphatase activity and resulting in decreased cytokine production. This agent exhibits potent immunosuppressive activity in vivo and prevents the activation of T-lymphocytes in response to antigenic or mitogenic stimulation. Tacrolimus possesses similar immunosuppressive properties to cyclosporine, but is more potent. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

tadalafil

A carboline-based compound with vasodilatory activity. Tadalafil selectively inhibits the cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-specific type 5 phosphodiesterase- (PDE-5)-mediated degradation of cGMP, which is found in the smooth muscle of the corpus cavernosa and corpus spongiosum of the penis. Inhibition of cGMP degradation by tadalafil results in prolonged muscle relaxation, vasodilation, and blood engorgement of the corpus cavernosa, and, so, prolonged penile erection. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

tafamidis meglumine

A soft gelatin capsule formulation containing the meglumine salt form of tafamidis, a small molecule and pharmacological chaperone with potential disease-modifying activity. Tafamidis binds to and stabilizes wild-type and variant (V122I) transthyretin (TTR), thereby preventing tetramer dissociation into monomers; this prevents misfolding of the TTR protein and inhibits the formation of TTR amyloid fibrils and the subsequent deposition of these insoluble protein clusters in peripheral nerve tissues and organs. TTR is a 127 amino acid transport protein for thyroxine and retinol and is secreted by the liver. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Tafinlar

(Other name for: dabrafenib)

Tagamet

(Other name for: cimetidine)

Tagrisso

(Other name for: osimertinib)

talabostat mesylate

The orally bioavailable mesylate salt of an amino boronic dipeptide with antineoplastic and hematopoiesis- stimulating activities. By cleaving N-terminal Xaa-Pro or Xaa-Ala residues, talabostat inhibits dipeptidyl peptidases, such as fibroblast activation protein (FAP), resulting in the stimulation of cytokine and chemokine production and specific T-cell immunity and T-cell- dependent activity. This agent may also stimulate the production of colony stimulating factors, such as granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), resulting in the stimulation of hematopoiesis. Dipeptidyl peptidases are involved in the activation of polypeptide hormones and chemokines. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

talactoferrin

An orally bioavailable recombinant human lactoferrin produced in the fungus Aspergillus niger with potential antineoplastic and immunomodulating activities. Upon oral administration, talactoferrin is transported into small intestinal Peyer's patches of the gut-associated lymphoreticular tissues (GALT), where it recruits circulating immature dendritic cells (DCs) bearing tumor antigens and induces their maturation. In the GALT, DC maturation in the presence of tumor antigens and lymphoid effector cells may induce systemic innate and adaptive immune responses mediated by anti-tumor natural killer (NK) cells, cytotoxic T lymphocytes, and natural killer T (NKT) cells; activation of tumor-draining lymph nodes, cellular infiltration of distant tumors, and tumor-cell death may follow. Raising the initial immune response in the GALT, distant from the primary tumor, may counter local tumor-mediated immunosuppression. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

talampanel

A synthetic derivative of dioxolo-benzodiazepine with anti-seizure activity. Talampanel noncompetitively binds to the AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid) subtype of glutamate excitatory amino acid receptors and may inhibit the growth of gliomas by interfering with neurotransmitters involved in brain tumor growth. This agent may also protect against traumatic brain injury. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

talaporfin sodium

An agent consisting of chlorin e6, derived from chlorophyll, and L-aspartic acid with photosensitizing activity. After intratumoral activation by light emitting diodes, taporfin sodium forms an extended high energy conformational state that generates singlet oxygen, resulting in free radical-mediated cell death. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

talazoparib

An orally bioavailable inhibitor of the nuclear enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) with potential antineoplastic activity. Talazoparib selectively binds to PARP and prevents PARP-mediated DNA repair of single strand DNA breaks via the base-excision repair pathway. This enhances the accumulation of DNA strand breaks, promotes genomic instability and eventually leads to apoptosis. PARP catalyzes post-translational ADP-ribosylation of nuclear proteins that signal and recruit other proteins to repair damaged DNA and is activated by single-strand DNA breaks. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

talc

Finely-powdered native hydrous magnesium silicate. When administered into the pleural space, talc initiates an inflammatory reaction, resulting in adhesion of the visceral pleura to the parietal pleura and fibrosis, thereby effectively closing the pleural space and preventing further accumulation of fluid. This agent exhibits no intrinsic antineoplastic activity. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

talimogene laherparepvec

An ICP34.5, ICP47-deleted, oncolytic herpes simplex type-1 virus (HSV-1) based on the JS1 strain, and encoding the immunostimulating factor human cytokine granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon intratumoral injection, talimogene laherparepvec selectively infects and replicates in tumor cells, thereby inducing tumor cell lysis. In addition, GM-CSF attracts dendritic cells (DCs) and may stimulate a cytotoxic T cell response against tumor cells, which results in immune-mediated tumor cell death. Deletion of the gene encoding for ICP34.5 provides tumor selectivity and prevents replication in healthy cells. As ICP47 blocks antigen presentation in HSV-infected cells, deletion of this gene may induce a more potent antitumor immune response in the tumor cells. Additionally, deletion of ICP47 causes increased expression of the HSV US11 gene and allows US11 to be expressed as an immediate early and not a late gene. This further enhances the degree of viral replication and oncolysis of tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

talmapimod

An orally bioavailable, small-molecule, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor with potential immunomodulating, anti-inflammatory, and antineoplastic activities. Talmapimod specifically binds to and inhibits the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, which may result in the induction of tumor cell apoptosis, the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation, and the inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. This agent may also enhance proteasome inhibitor-induced apoptosis. p38 MAPK is a serine/threonine protein kinase involved in a MAPK signaling cascade that controls cellular responses to various environmental stresses, cytokines, and endotoxins. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

talotrexin ammonium

The ammonium salt of an antimetabolite analogue of aminopterin with potential antineoplastic activity. As a folate antagonist, talotrexin binds to and inhibits the function of dihydrofolate reductase, resulting in the inhibition of folate metabolism, DNA synthesis, and cell division. Hydrosoluble, talotrexin is actively transported into cells by the reduced folate carrier (RFC) and, therefore, is unlikely to be associated with P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

taltirelin hydrate

The hydrate of tatirelin, a thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) analogue with potential neuroprotective, analgesic and central nervous system-stimulating (CNS)/analeptic activities. Taltirelin mimics the physiological actions of TRH on the CNS while exerting a minimal effect on the release of thyrotrophin (TSH) from the anterior lobe of the pituitary. Like TRH, the mechanism of action of this agent in the CNS has not been fully elucidated mechanism, but may involve various cerebral monoamine pathways. Compared to TRH, taltirelin has a much longer half-life and duration of effects. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Talvesta

(Other name for: talotrexin ammonium)

tamibarotene

An orally active, synthetic retinoid, developed to overcome all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) resistance, with potential antineoplastic activity. As a specific retinoic acid receptor (RAR) alpha/beta agonist, tamibarotene is approximately ten times more potent than ATRA in inducing cell differentiation and apoptosis in HL-60 (human promyelocytic leukemia) cell lines in vitro. Due to a lower affinity for cellular retinoic acid binding protein (CRABP), tamibarotene may show sustained plasma levels compared to ATRA.In addition, this agent may exhibit a lower toxicity profile than ATRA, in part, due to the lack of affinity for the RAR-gamma receptor, the major retinoic acid receptor in the dermal epithelium. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Tamiflu

(Other name for: oseltamivir phosphate)

tamoxifen citrate

The citrate salt of an antineoplastic nonsteroidal selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM). Tamoxifen competitively inhibits the binding of estradiol to estrogen receptors, thereby preventing the receptor from binding to the estrogen-response element on DNA. The result is a reduction in DNA synthesis and cellular response to estrogen. In addition, tamoxifen up-regulates the production of transforming growth factor B (TGFb), a factor that inhibits tumor cell growth, and down-regulates insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), a factor that stimulates breast cancer cell growth. Tamoxifen also down-regulates protein kinase C (PKC) expression in a dose-dependant manner, inhibiting signal transduction and producing an antiproliferative effect in tumors such as malignant glioma and other cancers that overexpress PKC. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

tamsulosin hydrochloride

The hydrochloride salt of tamsulosin, a sulfonamide derivative with adrenergic antagonist activity. Tamsulosin selectivity binds to and blocks the activity of alpha1 adrenoreceptors in the human prostate and bladder neck; blockade of these adrenoceptors can cause smooth muscle in the prostate and bladder neck to relax, resulting in an improvement in urinary flow rate. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

tandutinib

A piperazinyl quinazoline receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor with antineoplastic activity. Tandutinib inhibits the autophosphorylation of FLT3 (FMS-Like Tyrosine kinase-3), c-KIT and PDGF (platelet-derived growth factor) receptor tyrosine kinases, thereby inhibiting cellular proliferation and inducing apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

tanespimycin

A benzoquinone antineoplastic antibiotic derived from the antineoplastic antibiotic geldanamycin. Tanespimycin binds to and inhibits the cytosolic chaperone functions of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90). HSP90 maintains the stability and functional shape of many oncogenic signaling proteins; the inhibition of HSP90 promotes the proteasomal degradation of oncogenic signaling proteins that may be overexpressed by tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

tanezumab

A humanized monoclonal antibody directed against nerve growth factor (NGF), a modulator of nociceptor function, with potential analgesic activity. Tanezumab binds to NGF and prevents NGF binding to its high affinity, membrane-bound, catalytic receptor tropomyosin-related kinase A (TrkA), which is present on sympathetic and sensory neurons; reduced stimulation of TrkA by NGF inhibits the pain-transmission activities of these neurons. NGF, a neurotrophin, is critical to the growth and maintenance of sympathetic and sensory neurons. In addition, NGF may induce mast cells to release inflammatory proteins and may induce the upregulation of substance P and other pain-related peptides in sympathetic and sensory neurons. Upon neurotrophin binding, TrkA phosphorylates itself and members of the MAPK pathway, mediating the multiple neuronal effects of NGF. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

tangerine tomato juice

Tomato juice derived from the tangerine tomato, with potential antioxidant and chemopreventive activities. Tangerine tomato juice contains higher levels of the cis-isomer of lycopene (cis-LYC) compared to the trans-isomer (trans-LYC). Lycopene, a linear, unsaturated hydrocarbon carotenoid, is the major red pigment in certain fruits such as tomatoes, pink grapefruit, apricots, red oranges, watermelon, rosehips, and guava. As an antioxidant, lycopene scavenges free radicals, which may both inhibit cellular oxidation and prevent free radical damage to cells. cis-LYC is better absorbed than its trans form. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

tanibirumab

A fully human monoclonal antibody targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2), with potential antiangiogenic activity. Upon administration, tanibirumab specifically binds to VEGFR2, thereby preventing the binding of its ligand VEGF. This may result in the inhibition of tumor angiogenesis and a decrease in tumor nutrient supply. VEGFR2 is a pro-angiogenic growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase expressed by endothelial cells, while VEGF is overexpressed in many tumors and is correlated to tumor progression. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

tanomastat

A biphenyl matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor (MMPI) with potential antineoplastic activity. Tanomastat inhibits MMP-2, MMP-3, and MMP-9, inhibiting extracellular matrix degradation and potentially inhibiting angiogenesis, tumor growth and invasion, and metastasis. MMPs consist of at least 18 zinc-containing endo-proteinases that are capable of degrading collagen and proteoglycan. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

tapentadol hydrochloride ER

An orally active, extended-release preparation of the hydrochloride salt of tapentadol with analgesic activity. Tapentadol is a synthetic, centrally acting analgesic with a dual mechanism of action involving mu-opioid receptor agonism and norepinephrine reuptake inhibition. This agent may be effective in the management of pain, cancer-related and other. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Tarabine PFS

(Other name for: cytarabine)

Tarceva

(Other name for: erlotinib hydrochloride)

tarenflurbil

An orally active synthetic enantiomer of flurbiprofen. Tarenflurbil activates c-Jun N terminal kinase, increases AP-1 binding to DNA, and downregulates cyclin D1 expression, resulting in arrest of tumor cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle and apoptosis. This agent also affects the expression of nuclear factor kappa B, a rapid response transcription factor that stimulates the immune response to tumor cells. Tarenflurbil does not inhibit the enzyme cyclo-oxygenase. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

tarextumab

A monoclonal antibody directed against the Notch receptor with potential antineoplastic activity. Tarextumab binds to Notch on the cell surface, thereby inhibiting Notch-mediated signaling and gene transcription, which may impede tumor angiogenesis. Notch receptors are important for cell-cell communication, which involves gene regulation mechanisms that control multiple cell differentiation processes during embryonic and adult life. Dysregulated Notch signaling is implicated in many diseases including T-ALL (T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia), CADASIL (cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with sub-cortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy), MS (multiple sclerosis), and many other disease states. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Targocid

(Other name for: teicoplanin)

Targretin

(Other name for: bexarotene)

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