Drug Dictionary


p.DOM-WT1-37 DNA vaccine

A fusion DNA vaccine containing the first domain of fragment C (FrC) of tetanus toxin (TT865-1120) (p.DOM) fused to the human Wilms' Tumor gene-1 (WT1)-derived MHC class I-binding epitope WT1.37, with potential antitumor activity. Upon vaccination with p.DOM-WT1-37 DNA and subsequent electroporation, this vaccine may induce a WT1 epitope-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against WT1 expressing cells, resulting in cell lysis and inhibition of cancer cell proliferation in WT1-overexpressing cancer cells. WT1, a tumor associated antigen, is overexpressed in most types of leukemia and in a variety of solid cancers. The FrC of tetanus toxin contains the MHC II-binding sequence, p30, which induces T-helper cell activation for long-lasting immunity. Check for active clinical trials using this agent.

p110beta/delta PI3K Inhibitor GS-9820

An inhibitor of the beta and delta isoforms of the 110 kDa catalytic subunit of class IA phosphoinositide-3 kinases (PI3K) with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. p110beta/delta PI3K inhibitor GS-9820 inhibits the activity of PI3K, thereby preventing the production of the second messenger phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3), which decreases tumor cell proliferation and induces cell death. PI3K-mediated signaling is often dysregulated in cancer cells; the targeted inhibition of PI3K is designed to preserve PI3K signaling in normal, non-neoplastic cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

p38 MAPK inhibitor LY2228820 dimesylate

The dimesylate salt form of LY2228820, a tri-substituted imidazole derivative and orally available, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor with potential anti-inflammatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, LY2228820 inhibits the activity of p38, particularly the alpha and beta isoforms, thereby inhibiting MAPKAPK2 phosphorylation and preventing p38 MAPK-mediated signaling. This may inhibit the production of a variety of cytokines involved in inflammation, cellular proliferation and angiogenesis such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFa), interleukin (IL)-1, -6 and -8, vascular endothelial growth factor, and macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha. Ultimately this induces apoptosis and reduces tumor cell proliferation. In addition, inhibition of the p38 MAPK pathway by LY2228820 increases the antineoplastic activity of certain chemotherapeutic agents. p38 MAPK, a serine/threonine protein kinase that is often upregulated in cancer cells, plays a crucial role in tumor cell proliferation, angiogenesis and metastasis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

p38 MAPK inhibitor LY3007113

An orally active p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor with potential immunomodulating, anti-inflammatory, and antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, LY3007113 inhibits the activity of p38, thereby preventing p38 MAPK-mediated signaling. This may result in the inhibition of the production of proinflammatory cytokines and the induction of tumor cell apoptosis. p38 MAPK, a serine/threonine protein kinase often upregulated in cancer cells, plays a crucial part in the production of a variety of cytokines involved in inflammation and cellular proliferation such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin (IL)-1 and -6. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

p38/Tie2 kinase inhibitor Arry-614

An orally bioavailable small-molecule inhibitor of p38 and Tie2 kinases with potential antineoplastic, anti-inflammatory and antiangiogenic activities. p38/Tie2 kinase inhibitor Arry-614 binds to and inhibits the activities of p38 and Tie2 kinases, which may inhibit the production of proinflammatory cytokines and may decrease tumor angiogenesis and tumor cell growth and survival. p38 is a MAP kinase that is often upregulated in cancer cells, playing a crucial part in the production of a variety of cytokines involved in inflammation and cellular proliferation such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin (IL)-1 and -6. Tie2 is an endothelial cell specific receptor that is activated by angiopoietins, growth factors required for angiogenesis. This agent has also been reported to inhibit other kinases including vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR2) and Src tyrosine kinases. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

p53 peptide vaccine

A peptide-based cancer vaccine composed of amino acids 264 to 272 of the wild-type protein encoded by the P53 gene. p53 peptide vaccine may elicit an HLA-A2.1-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte immune response against tumor cells that overexpress p53 protein. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

p53 synthetic long peptide (70-251) vaccine

A peptide vaccine consisting of 10 synthetic long peptides (SLPs), 25-30 amino acids in size and derived from the middle portion of p53 (amino acids 70-251), mixed with the adjuvant Montanide ISA-51 with potential immunostimulatory and antitumor activities. Upon administration, p53 synthetic long peptide (70-251) vaccine may stimulate the host immune system to mount a cytotoxic T-cell lymphocyte (CTL) response against p53-expressing tumor cells. p53, a tumor associated antigen (TAA), may be overexpressed in variety of cancer cell types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

p53/HDM2 interaction inhibitor CGM097

An orally bioavailable HDM2 (human homolog of double minute 2) antagonist with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, p53/HDM2 interaction inhibitor CGM097 inhibits the binding of the HDM2 protein to the transcriptional activation domain of the tumor suppressor protein p53. By preventing this HDM2-p53 interaction, the proteosome-mediated enzymatic degradation of p53 is inhibited, which may result in the restoration of p53 signaling and, thus, the p53-mediated induction of tumor cell apoptosis. HDM2, a zinc finger nuclear phosphoprotein, is a negative regulator of the p53 pathway, often overexpressed in cancer cells and has been implicated in cancer cell proliferation and survival. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

p53-HDM2 protein-protein interaction inhibitor MI-773

An orally available spiro-oxindole HDM2 (human double minute 2) antagonist with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, the p53-HDM2 protein-protein interaction inhibitor MI-773 binds to HDM2, preventing the binding of the HDM2 protein to the transcriptional activation domain of the tumor suppressor protein p53. By preventing this HDM2-p53 interaction, the proteosome-mediated enzymatic degradation of p53 is inhibited and the transcriptional activity of p53 is restored, which may result in the restoration of p53 signaling and lead to the p53-mediated induction of tumor cell apoptosis. HDM2, a zinc finger protein and a negative regulator of the p53 pathway, is often overexpressed in cancer cells. It has been implicated in cancer cell proliferation and survival. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

p70S6K inhibitor LY2584702

An orally available inhibitor of p70S6K signaling, with potential antineoplastic activity. p70S6K inhibitor LY2584702 inhibits ribosomal protein S6 Kinase (p70S6K), and prevents phosphorylation of the S6 subunit of ribosomes, thereby inhibiting normal ribosomal function within tumor cells leading to a decrease in protein synthesis and in cellular proliferation. P70S6K, a serine/threonine kinase, acts downstream of PIP3 and phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 in the PI3 kinase pathway, is often upregulated in a variety of cancer cells, and is involved in the regulation of cell growth, proliferation, motility, and survival. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

p70S6K/Akt inhibitor MSC2363318A

An orally available inhibitor of the serine/threonine protein kinases ribosomal protein S6 Kinase (p70S6K) and Akt (protein kinase B), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, p70S6K/Akt inhibitor MSC2363318A binds to and inhibits the activity of p70S6K and Akt. This prevents the activation of the PI3K/Akt/p70S6K signaling pathway and inhibits tumor cell proliferation in cancer cells that have an overactivated PI3K/Akt/p70S6K signaling pathway. Constitutive activation and dysregulated signaling of the PI3K/Akt/p70S6K pathway are frequently associated with tumorigenesis of many tumor types; targeting multiple kinases in this pathway is more efficacious than targeting a single kinase. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

p97 inhibitor CB-5083

An orally bioavailable inhibitor of valosin-containing protein (VCP) p97, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, CB-5083 specifically binds to and inhibits the activity of p97. This prevents ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation and causes cellular accumulation of poly-ubiquitinated proteins. The inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated protein degradation activates the ER-dependent stress response pathway, and leads to both an induction of apoptosis and inhibition of cell proliferation in susceptible tumor cells. p97, a type II AAA ATPase, plays a key role in cellular protein homeostasis. Its overexpression in many tumor cell types is associated with increased tumor cell proliferation and survival. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

paclitaxel

A compound extracted from the Pacific yew tree Taxus brevifolia with antineoplastic activity. Paclitaxel binds to tubulin and inhibits the disassembly of microtubules, thereby resulting in the inhibition of cell division. This agent also induces apoptosis by binding to and blocking the function of the apoptosis inhibitor protein Bcl-2 (B-cell Leukemia 2). Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

paclitaxel albumin-stabilized nanoparticle formulation

A Cremophor EL-free, albumin-stabilized nanoparticle formulation of the natural taxane paclitaxel with antineoplastic activity. Paclitaxel binds to and stabilizes microtubules, preventing their depolymerization and so inhibiting cellular motility, mitosis, and replication. This formulation solubilizes paclitaxel without the use of the solvent Cremophor, thereby permitting the administration of larger doses of paclitaxel while avoiding the toxic effects associated with Cremophor. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

paclitaxel injection concentrate for nanodispersion

A nanoparticle-based injectable concentrate containing the water-insoluble taxane paclitaxel, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon reconstitution and administration, paclitaxel binds to tubulin and inhibits the disassembly of microtubules, thereby resulting in the inhibition of cell division. Compared to paclitaxel alone, the nanodispersion-based formulation uses less toxic solvents and allows for administration of higher doses resulting in higher concentrations of paclitaxel at the tumor site, and an increased safety profile. Check for active clinical trials using this agent.

paclitaxel poliglumex

The agent paclitaxel linked to a biodegradable, water-soluble polyglutamate polymer with antineoplastic properties. The polyglutamate residue increases the water solubility of paclitaxel and allows delivery of higher doses than those achievable with paclitaxel alone. Paclitaxel promotes microtubule assembly and prevents microtubule depolymerization, thus interfering with normal mitosis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

paclitaxel vitamin E-based emulsion formulation

A cremophor-free, P-glycoprotein-inhibiting, vitamin E-based emulsion particle formulation of paclitaxel with antineoplastic activity. Paclitaxel binds to tubulin and inhibits the disassembly of microtubules, thereby resulting in the inhibition of cell division. This agent also induces apoptosis by binding to and blocking the function of the apoptosis inhibitor protein Bcl-2 (B-cell Leukemia 2). The vitamin-E based emulsion allows bolus infusion without steroid premedication and may diminish hypersensitivity reactions; tumor tissue may be passively targeted due to preferential deposition of emulsion particles while an emulsion formulation component inhibits the P-glycoprotein drug efflux pump. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

paclitaxel-loaded polymeric micelle

A biodegradable poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(D,L-lactide) copolymer miceller nanoparticle-entrapped formulation of paclitaxel with antineoplastic activity. Paclitaxel promotes microtubule assembly and prevents depolymerization, thus interfering with normal mitosis. The copolymer residue increases the water-solubility of paclitaxel and allows delivery of higher doses than those achievable with paclitaxel alone. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

pacritinib

An orally bioavailable inhibitor of Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) and the JAK2 mutant JAK2V617F with potential antineoplastic activity. Pacritinib competes with JAK2 for ATP binding, which may result in inhibition of JAK2 activation, inhibition of the JAK-STAT signaling pathway, and so caspase-dependent apoptosis. JAK2 is the most common mutated gene in bcr-abl-negative myeloproliferative disorders; the JAK2V617F gain-of-function mutation involves a valine-to-phenylalanine modification at position 617. The JAK-STAT signaling pathway is a major mediator of cytokine activity. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

PAD regimen

A chemotherapy regimen containing bortezomib, doxorubicin and dexamethasone regimen used in the treatment of multiple myeloma. (NCI Thesaurus)

padeliporfin

A vascular-acting photosensitizer consisting of a water-soluble, palladium-substituted bacteriochlorophyll derivative with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, paldeliporfin is activated locally when the tumor bed is exposed to low-power laser light; reactive oxygen species (ROS) are formed upon activation and ROS-mediated necrosis may occur at the site of interaction between the photosensitizer, light and oxygen. Vascular-targeted photodynamic therapy (VTP) with padeliporfin may allow tumor-site specific cytotoxicity while sparing adjacent normal tissues. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

PADRE 965.10

Pan-DR epitope (PADRE) 965.10 is a helper peptide. PADRE peptides have been shown the capacity to deliver help for antibody responses in vivo. They were also found to be able to provide significant helper T-cell activity in vivo. Acts as an adjuvant. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

PADRE-CMV fusion peptide vaccine

A peptide-based vaccine containing a pan HLA DR-binding epitope (PADRE) fused to a cytomegalovirus (CMV) peptide epitope, with potential anti-viral and immunomodulating activities. Upon administration, PADRE-CMV fusion peptide may stimulate a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against CMV in the CMV-infected host. The synthetic peptide PADRE is a universal helper T cell epitope. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

PAK4 inhibitor PF-03758309

An orally bioavailable small-molecule inhibitor of p21-activated kinase 4 (PAK4) with potential antineoplastic activity. PAK4 inhibitor PF-03758309 binds to PAK4, inhibiting PAK4 activity and cancer cell growth. PAK4, a serine/threonine kinase belonging to the p21-activated kinase (PAK) family, is often upregulated in a variety of cancer cell types and plays an important role in cancer cell motility, proliferation, and survival. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

PAK4/NAMPT inhibitor KPT-9274

An orally bioavailable inhibitor of both the serine/threonine kinase P21-activated kinase 4 (PAK4) and the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-synthesizing enzyme nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT; NAMPRTase), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, KPT-9274 allosterically binds to, destabilizes and causes degradation of PAK4. This inhibits PAK4-mediated signaling, induces cell death in, and inhibits the proliferation of PAK4-overexpressing tumor cells. In addition, KPT-9274 binds to and inhibits the activity of NAMPT. This depletes cellular NAD and inhibits NAD-dependent enzymes, both of which are needed for rapid cell proliferation; this results in tumor cell death in NAMPT-overexpressing cancer cells. PAK4, a serine/threonine kinase and member of the PAK family of proteins upregulated in various cancer cell types, regulates cell motility, proliferation and survival. NAMPT, an enzyme that is responsible for maintaining the intracellular NAD pool, plays a key role in the regulation of cellular metabolism and has cytokine-like activities. NAMPT is often overexpressed in a variety of cancers and metabolic disorders and tumor cells rely on NAMPT activity for their NAD supply. Check for active clinical trials using this agent.

palbociclib

An orally available cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. Palbociclib selectively inhibits cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) and 6 (CDK6), thereby inhibiting retinoblastoma (Rb) protein phosphorylation early in the G1 phase leading to cell cycle arrest. This suppresses DNA replication and decreases tumor cell proliferation. CDK4 and 6 are serine/threonine kinases that are upregulated in many tumor cell types and play a key role in the regulation of cell cycle progression. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Palestrol

(Other name for: diethylstilbestrol)

palifermin

A recombinant form of the endogenous human keratinocyte growth factor. Palifermin binds to epithelial cell surface receptors in the lining of the mouth and gastrointestinal tract, resulting in stimulation of epithelial cell proliferation, differentiation and upregulation of cytoprotective mechanisms. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

palifosfamide

A synthetic mustard compound with potential antineoplastic activity. An active metabolite of ifosfamide covalently linked to the amino acid lysine for stability, palifosfamide irreversibly alkylates and cross-links DNA through GC base pairs, resulting in irreparable 7-atom inter-strand cross-links; inhibition of DNA replication and cell death follow. Unlike ifosfamide, this agent is not metabolized to acrolein or chloroacetaldehyde, metabolites associated with bladder and CNS toxicities. In addition, because palifosfamide does not require activation by aldehyde dehydrogenase, it may overcome the tumor resistance seen with ifosfamide. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

palifosfamide tromethamine

A synthetic mustard compound of the tromethamine (tris) salt of palifosfamide (Isophosphamide mustard), with potential antineoplastic activity. As the stabilized active metabolite of ifosfamide, palifosfamide irreversibly alkylates and crosslinks DNA through GC base pairs, resulting in irreparable 7-atom interstrand crosslinks. This leads to an inhibition of DNA replication and ultimately cell death. Unlike ifosfamide, this agent is not metabolized to acrolein or chloroacetaldehyde, metabolites associated with bladder and CNS toxicities. In addition, because palifosfamide does not require activation by aldehyde dehydrogenase, it may overcome the tumor resistance seen with ifosfamide. Stabilization with tris instead of lysine further increases stability and may further decrease nephrotoxicity. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

palladium Pd 103

A radioisotope of the metal palladium used in brachytherapy implants or 'seed'. With a half-life of 17 days, palladium 103 administered with brachytherapy allows continuous, tumor-site specific low-energy irradiation to the tumor cell population while sparing normal adjacent tissues from radiotoxicity. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

palladium-bacteriopheophorbide

A novel palladium-substituted bacteriochlorophyll derivative and photosensitizer with potential antitumor activity. Upon administration, inactive palladium-bacteriophephorbide is activated locally when the tumor bed is exposed to photoirradiation; the activated form induces local cytotoxic processes, resulting in local tissue damage, disruption of tumor vasculature, and tumor hypoxia and necrosis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

palonosetron hydrochloride

The hydrochloride salt of palonosetron, a carbazole derivative and a selective serotonin receptor antagonist with antiemetic activity. Palonosetron competitively blocks the action of serotonin at 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT3) receptors located on vagal afferents in the chemoreceptor trigger zone (CTZ), resulting in suppression of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. The CTZ is located in the area postrema on the dorsal surface of the medulla oblongata at the caudal end of the fourth ventricle and outside the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

pamidronate disodium

The disodium salt of the synthetic bisphosphonate pamidronate. Although its mechanism of action is not completely understood, pamidronate appears to adsorb to calcium phosphate crystals in bone, blocking their dissolution by inhibiting osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. This agent does not inhibit bone mineralization and formation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Pamolyn 300

(Other name for: conjugated linoleic acid)

pan FGFR inhibitor ARQ 087

An orally bioavailable inhibitor of the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) with potential antineoplastic activity. FGFR inhibitor ARQ 087 binds to and potently inhibits the activity of FGFR subtypes 1, 2 and 3. This may result in the inhibition of FGFR-mediated signal transduction pathways, tumor cell proliferation, tumor angiogenesis and tumor cell death in FGFR-overexpressing tumor cells. FGFR, a receptor tyrosine kinase, is upregulated in many tumor cell types and plays a key role in tumor cellular proliferation, differentiation, angiogenesis and survival. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

pan FGFR kinase inhibitor BGJ398

An orally bioavailable pan inhibitor of human fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) with potential antiangiogenic and antineoplastic activities. pan FGFR kinase inhibitor BGJ398 selectively binds to and inhibits the activities of FGFRs, which may result in the inhibition of tumor angiogenesis and tumor cell proliferation, and the induction of tumor cell death. FGFRs are a family of receptor tyrosine kinases which may be upregulated in various tumor cell types and may be involved in tumor cell differentiation and proliferation, tumor angiogenesis, and tumor cell survival. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

pan-AKT kinase inhibitor GSK690693

An aminofurazan-derived inhibitor of Akt kinases with potential antineoplastic activity. Pan-AKT kinase inhibitor GSK-690693 binds to and inhibits Akt kinases 1, 2, and 3, which may result in the inhibition of protein phosphorylation events downstream from Akt kinases in the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, and, subsequently, the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation and the induction of tumor cell apoptosis. In addition, this agent may inhibit other protein kinases including protein kinase C (PKC) and protein kinase A (PKA). As serine/threonine protein kinases which are involved in a number of biological processes, AKT kinases promote cell survival by inhibiting apoptosis and are required for glucose transport. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Pancrease

(Other name for: pancrelipase)

pancrelipase

A standardized enzyme concentrate containing the pancreatic enzymes, lipase, protease and amylase used in enzyme substitution therapy. Lipase, protease and amylase break down fat, protein, and starches, respectively in the small intestine, thereby promoting digestion. Pancrelipase is used to reduce malabsorption when the pancreas is unable to secrete sufficient amounts of these enzymes. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

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