Drug Dictionary

NA-17/MAGE-3.A2/NY-ESO-1 peptide vaccine

A peptide cancer vaccine consisting of peptides derived from the melanoma antigen NA-17, the human leukocyte antigen HLA-A2-restricted human melanoma antigen 3 (MAGE-3.A2) and the cancer-testis antigen (NY-ESO-1), with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, the NA-17/MAGE-3.A2/NY-ESO-1 peptide vaccine may stimulate the immune system to mount a cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) response against tumor cells expressing NA-17, MAGE-3.A2 and NY-ESO-1, resulting in tumor cell lysis. The tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) NA-17, MAGE-3.A2 and NY-ESO-1 are overexpressed in a variety of cancer cell types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent.

NA17-A antigen

A specific melanoma antigen protein derived from a patient (NA17) with cutaneous melanoma metastases. When administered in a vaccine formulation, NA17-A antigen may stimulate a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against tumors that express this antigen, which may result in a reduction in tumor size. The NA17-A antigen is part of the enzyme N-acetyl glucosaminyl-transferase V (GnT-V). Approximately half of melanomas have been found to express significant levels of this atypical protein, which is not expressed by normal tissues. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)


A synthetic cannabinoid and dibenzopyrane derivative with anti-emetic activity. Although the mechanism of action has not been fully elucidated yet, it has been suggested that nabilone is a highly selective and strong agonist for the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2, both of which are coupled to Gi/o proteins. The CB1 receptors are expressed predominantly in central and peripheral neurons and receptor stimulation has been implicated in the reduction of chemotherapy-induced nausea. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)


An herbal preparation containing a defined quantity of specific cannabinoids formulated for oromucosal spray administration with potential analgesic activity. Nabiximols contains a standardized extract of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the non-psychoactive cannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD), other minor cannabinoids, flavonoids, and terpenes from two cannabis plant varieties. Cannabinoids interact with G protein-coupled cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptors in the central nervous system, resulting in analgesic, euphoric, and anticonvulsive effects. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)


A non-selective beta-adrenergic antagonist with antihypertensive and antiarrhythmic activities. Nadolol competitively blocks beta-1 adrenergic receptors located in the heart and vascular smooth muscle, inhibiting the activities of the catecholamines epinephrine and norepinephrine and producing negative inotropic and chronotropic effects. This agent exhibits antiarrhythmic activity via the impairment of atrioventricular (AV) node conduction and a corresponding reduction in sinus rate. In the kidney, inhibition of the beta-2 receptor within the juxtaglomerular apparatus results in the inhibition of renin production and a subsequent reduction in angiotensin II and aldosterone levels, thus inhibiting angiotensin II-dependent vasoconstriction and aldosterone-dependent water retention. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

nadroparin calcium

A low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) composed of a heterogeneous mixture of sulfated polysaccharide glycosaminoglycan chains obtained by depolymerisation of porcine mucosal sodium heparin, extraction/purification and conversion to the calcium salt. Nadroparin binds to antithrombin III (ATIII) and inhibits the activity of activated factor X (factor Xa), thereby inhibiting the final common pathway of the coagulation cascade and preventing the formation of a cross-linked fibrin clot. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

nafoxidine hydrochloride

The hydrochloride salt of the partial estrogen antagonist nafoxidine. Nafoxidine competes with endogenous estrogen for binding to specific estrogen receptors. This agent also inhibits angiogenesis in some tissues by blocking the effects of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF); paradoxically, it may enhance angiogenesis in uterine tissue. Nafoxidine also induces oxidative stress, protein kinase C and calcium signaling. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

naloxone hydrochloride

The hydrochloride salt of naloxone, a thebaine derivate with opioid antagonist activity. Naloxone binds to opioid receptors in the CNS in a competitive manner, reversing or inhibiting characteristic opioid effects, including analgesia, euphoria, sedation, respiratory depression, miosis, bradycardia, and physical dependence. This agent binds to mu-opioid receptors with a high affinity, and a lesser degree to kappa- and gamma-opioid receptors. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

naltrexone hydrochloride

The hydrochloride salt of naltrexone, a noroxymorphone derivative with competitive opioid antagonistic activity. Naltrexone and its metabolite 6-beta-naltrexol reverse the effects of opioids by binding to various opioid receptors in the central nervous system CNS), including the mu-, kappa- and gamma-opioid receptors; opioid effects of analgesia, euphoria, sedation, respiratory depression, miosis, bradycardia, and physical dependence are inhibited. Naltrexone is longer-acting and more potent compared to naloxone. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)


(Other name for: memantine hydrochloride)

nandrolone decanoate

The decanoate salt form of nandrolone, an anabolic steroid analog of testosterone with androgenic, anabolic, and erythropoietin stimulating effects. Nandrolone enters the cell and binds to and activates specific nuclear androgen receptors in responsive tissue, including the prostate, seminal vesicles, scrotum, penis, larynx, hair follicles, muscle, and bone. The resulting activated hormone receptor complex translocates into the nucleus and binds to androgen response elements (ARE) in the promoter region of targeted genes, where the complex promotes gene expression necessary for maintaining male sex characteristics. Mimicking the negative feedback mechanism of testosterone, nandrolone decanoate also suppresses the secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH). Furthermore, this agent also stimulates erythropoietin production by enhancing the production of erythropoietic stimulating factors. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

nanocell-encapsulated miR-16-based microRNA mimic

A nanoparticle-based formulation composed of a microRNA 16 (miR-16) mimic, a double-stranded, 23 base pair, synthetic RNA molecule, encapsulated in nonliving bacterial minicells and coated with anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibodies, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intravenous administration and subsequent transfection, nanocell-encapsulated miR-16-based microRNA mimic targets EGFR-expressing tumor cells and facilitates the restoration of expression of the miR-16 family. This leads to the downregulation of the expression of tumor-promoting genes and the inhibition of tumor cell growth. In addition, restoration of miR-16 expression sensitizes the tumor cell to certain chemotherapeutic agents. miR-16, a family of microRNAs, is critical to the regulation of gene expression and appears to have a tumor suppressor function; its expression is downregulated in various cancer cell types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

nanoparticle albumin-bound docetaxel ABI-008

A nanoparticle albumin-bound formulation of the taxane docetaxel with antineoplastic activity. Docetaxel is a semi-synthetic, second-generation taxane derived from a compound found in the European yew tree Taxus baccata. Docetaxel binds to and stabilizes tubulin, thereby inhibiting microtubule disassembly which results in cell-cycle arrest at the G2/M phase and cell death. This agent also inhibits pro-angiogenic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and displays immunomodulatory and pro-inflammatory properties by inducing various mediators of the inflammatory response. In nanoparticle albumin-bound docetaxel ABI-008 docetaxel is solubilized without the use of the nonionic solubilizer Cremophor ELP, permitting the administration of larger doses of docetaxel while avoiding Cremophor ELP-associated toxicity. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

nanoparticle albumin-bound rapamycin

The macrolide antibiotic rapamycin bound to nanoparticle albumin with immunosuppressant (see sirolimus) and potential antiangiogenic and antineoplastic activities. Rapamycin binds to the immunophilin FK Binding Protein-12 (FKBP-12) to generate a complex that binds to and inhibits the activation of the mammalian Target Of Rapamycin (mTOR), a key regulatory kinase. In turn, inhibition of mTOR may result in the inhibition of the phosphatidylinositol 3 (PI-3) kinase/Akt pathway and vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) secretion, which may result in decreased tumor cell proliferation and tumor angiogenesis. The binding of water-insoluble rapamycin to nanoparticle albumin permits the albumin-mediated endocytosis of rapamycin by tumor cells and endothelial cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

nanoparticle-encapsulated docetaxel

A nanoparticle-based formulation containing the poorly water-soluble, second-generation taxane analog docetaxel covalently conjugated to proprietary and as of yet undisclosed degradable linkers and encapsulated in polymers, with antineoplastic activity. Upon intravenous administration of nanoparticle-encapsulated docetaxel, the nanoparticles are able to accumulate at the tumor site due to the unique characteristics of the tumor's vasculature, while avoiding normal, healthy tissue. Docetaxel is released and becomes active upon cleavage from various linkers at a predetermined and controlled rate which is dependent on the properties of the proprietary linkers. In turn, active, unconjugated docetaxel binds to the beta-subunit of tubulin, stabilizes microtubules and inhibits microtubule disassembly. This prevents mitosis and results in tumor cell death. Compared to the administration of docetaxel alone, this formulation is able to increase docetaxels efficacy while avoiding systemic exposure, which minimizes its toxicity. By using different linkers, docetaxel can be released at various rates. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

nanoparticle-encapsulated doxorubicin hydrochloride

A formulation of nanoparticles encapsulating the hydrochloride salt form of the anthracycline antibiotic doxorubicin, with potential antitumor activity. Upon intravenous administration, doxorubicin intercalates DNA, interferes with the activity of topoisomerase II, and causes DNA adducts and other DNA damage, resulting in tumor cell growth inhibition and apoptosis. This agent also interacts with cell membrane lipids causing lipid peroxidation. Delivery of doxorubicin in nanoparticles may improve drug penetration into tumors and may circumvent the tumor cells' multidrug resistance mechanisms and may therefore be effective in chemoresistant tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

nanosomal docetaxel lipid suspension

A lipid-based nanosomal formulation of the poorly soluble, semi-synthetic, second-generation taxane docetaxel, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intravenous injection, docetaxel binds to and stabilizes tubulin, which inhibits microtubule disassembly and results in both cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase and cell death. This liposomal formulation solubilizes docetaxel without the use of toxic solvents, such as polysorbate 80. This permits the administration of larger doses of docetaxel and improves the drugs safety profile by avoiding solvent-associated toxicities, such as hypersensitivity reactions and neurotoxicity. In addition, the nanosomal lipid-based delivery of docetaxel improves drug penetration into tumors and decreases drug clearance, all of which prolong the duration of docetaxels therapeutic effects. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)


An orally available cancer cell stemness inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. Even though the exact target has yet to be fully elucidated, napabucasin appears to target and inhibit multiple pathways involved in cancer cell stemness. This may ultimately inhibit cancer stemness cell (CSC) growth as well as heterogeneous cancer cell growth. CSCs, self-replicating cells that are able to differentiate into heterogeneous cancer cells, appear to be responsible for the malignant growth, recurrence and resistance to conventional chemotherapies. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

naphthalimide analogue UNBS5162

An amonafide (naphthalimide) derivative and pan-antagonist of chemokine ligand (CXCL) expression, with potential anti-angiogenic activity. Although UNBS5162 is a derivative of amonafide, this agent appears to have a different profile than that of amonafide and its exact mechanism of action remains to be fully elucidated. This agent seems to decrease the expression of various proangiogenic CXCL chemokines in vitro and may have synergistic effects with radiotherapy or chemotherapy. CXCLs are small cytokines in the CXC chemokine family that are overexpressed in certain cancers; CXCL-mediated signaling plays a key role in angiogenesis and tumor progression. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)


(Other name for: naproxen)


A propionic acid derivative and a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic activities. Naproxen inhibits the activity of the enzymes cyclo-oxygenase I and II, resulting in a decreased formation of precursors of prostaglandins and thromboxanes. The resulting decrease in prostaglandin synthesis is responsible for the therapeutic effects of naproxen. Naproxen also causes a decrease in the formation of thromboxane A2 synthesis, by thromboxane synthase, thereby inhibiting platelet aggregation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)


(Other name for: naloxone hydrochloride)


(Other name for: phenelzine sulfate)


A monoclonal antibody against RON (recepteur d'origine nantais; macrophage stimulating 1 receptor), with potential antineoplastic activity. Narnatumab binds to RON, thereby preventing binding of its ligand hepatocyte growth factor-like protein (HGFL or macrophage-stimulating protein (MSP)). This may prevent RON receptor-mediated signaling and may prevent cellular proliferation in tumor cells overexpressing RON. RON, a receptor tyrosine kinase, is overexpressed in a variety of epithelial cancer cell types and plays an important role in cellular proliferation, migration and invasion. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)


(Other name for: ropivacaine hydrochloride)


(Other name for: triamcinolone acetonide)

nasal saline irrigation solution

A solution containing sodium chloride that can be used to cleanse the nasal passages. Upon nasal irrigation, the saline washes out thick or dry mucus, and irritants, such as pollen, dust particles, pollutants and bacteria, from the nasal cavities. This reduces nasal blockage, improves nasal airflow and helps keep nasal passages clean and clear, which decreases the risk of irritation and inflammation. The saline solution also moisturizes and soothes irritated mucus membranes. Check for active clinical trials using this agent.


(Other name for: fentanyl citrate pectin-based nasal spray)


A humanized recombinant IgG4 monoclonal antibody directed against the alpha4 subunit of the integrins alpha4beta1 and alpha4beta7 with immunomodulating, anti-inflammatory, and potential antineoplastic activities. Natalizumab binds to the apha4-subunit of alpha4beta1 and alpha4beta7 integrins expressed on the surface of all leukocytes except neutrophils, inhibiting the alpha4-mediated adhesion of leukocytes to counter-receptor(s) such as vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1); natalizumab mediated disruption of VCAM-1 binding by these integrins may prevent the transmigration of leukocytes across the endothelium into inflamed parenchymal tissue. Integrins are cellular adhesion molecules (CAMs) that are upregulated in various types of cancer and some autoimmune diseases; alpha4beta1 integrin (VLA4) has been implicated in the survival of myeloma cells, possibly by mediating their adhesion to stromal cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)


A phenylalanine derivative of the meglitinide class of agents with hypoglycemic activity. Nateglinide, compared to repaglitinide, binds with a higher affinity to the SUR1 subunit and with a faster onset of action and a shorter duration of action. This agent is metabolized by the cytochrome P450 isoenzyme CYP2C9, and, to a lesser extent, by CYP3A4. The parent drug and metabolites are mainly excreted in the urine and its half-life is about 1.5 hours. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)


(Other name for: nesiritide)

natural human interferon alpha OPC-18

A proprietary preparation of natural human interferon alpha (IFN alpha) with potential immunomodulatory and antineoplastic activities. Natural human interferon alpha OPC-18 binds to cell-surface IFN alpha receptors (IFNARs), resulting in the transcription and translation of genes whose products mediate antiviral, antiproliferative, and immune-modulating effects.IFN alpha is a type I interferon produced by peripheral blood leukocytes or lymphoblastoid cells when exposed to live or inactivated virus, double-stranded RNA, or bacterial products and is the primary interferon produced by virus-induced leukocyte cultures. In addition to its pronounced antiviral activity, it activates NK cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

natural killer cells ZRx101

A population of activated, immortalized, interleukin-2 (IL-2)-dependent, cytotoxic natural killer (NK) cells with potential antitumor activity. Natural killer cells ZRx101 are derived from NK-92 cells, having been modified to target tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) upregulated in certain types of cancer. The NK-92 cell line was originally isolated from a patient with large granular lymphocytic (LGL) leukemia/lymphoma. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)


(Other name for: vinorelbine tartrate)


An orally bioavailable, synthetic small-molecule antagonist of a subset of the B-cell leukemia 2 (Bcl-2) family of proteins with potential antineoplastic activity. BcI-2 family protein inhibitor ABT-263 selectively binds to apoptosis suppressor proteins Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, and Bcl-w and prevents their binding to the apoptotic effectors Bax and Bak proteins, which may trigger apoptosis in tumor cells overexpressing Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, and Bcl-w. Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, and Bcl-w are frequently overexpressed in a wide variety of cancers, including those of the lymphatic system, breast, lung, prostate, and colon, and have been linked to tumor drug resistance. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

navy bean powder

The powder form of the cooked navy bean with potential antioxidant and chemopreventive activities. Navy beans are rich in fiber, minerals, vitamins, and phytochemicals such as flavonoids and phytosterols. They appear to prevent carcinogenesis by inducing tumor cell apoptosis. Intake of navy bean powder may have a beneficial effect on intestinal microflora. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

ncmtRNA oligonucleotide Andes-1537

A proprietary antisense oligonucleotide targeting a novel non-coding mitochondrial RNA (ncmtRNA), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, Andes-1537 binds to ncmtRNA, which is overexpressed in rapidly proliferating cells, such as cancer cells, and not expressed in resting cells. This may decrease the expression of the ncmtRNA, which may inhibit cell proliferation and eventually induce apoptosis in susceptible cancer cells. The proprietary mitochondrial RNA (mtRNA) belongs to the family of non-coding RNAs (ncRNA); it contains an inverted repeat (IR) of 815 nucleotides (nt), which can form a covalent link to the 5 end of the mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA (16S mtrRNA). Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)


(Other name for: tobramycin sulfate)


(Other name for: pentamidine isethionate)


A fully human IgG1 monoclonal antibody directed against the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) with potential antineoplastic activity. Necitumumab binds to and blocks the ligand binding site of EGFR, thereby preventing the activation and subsequent dimerization of the receptor. This may lead to an inhibition of EGFR-dependent downstream pathways and so inhibition of EGFR-dependent tumor cell proliferation and metastasis. EGFR, a member of the epidermal growth factor family of extracellular protein ligands, may be overexpressed on the cell surfaces of various tumor cell types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

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