Drug Dictionary


L-377,202

A prodrug in which a peptide is covalently conjugated with the anthracycline antineoplastic antibiotic doxorubicin. This complex is hydrolyzed by the enzyme prostate-specific antigen (PSA), resulting in the formation of doxorubicin and leucine-doxorubicin. Selective targeting of these drugs to prostate tumor cells occurs because the hydrolyzing PSA enzyme is localized to the prostate gland. Doxorubicin and leucine-doxorubicin intercalate into DNA and interacts with topoisomerase II, thereby inhibiting DNA replication and repair and RNA and protein synthesis. These agents also produce toxic free-radical intermediates and interact with cell membrane lipids causing lipid peroxidation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

labetuzumab-SN-38 immunoconjugate IMMU-130

An antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) containing labetuzumab, a mildly reduced, anti-CEACAM5 humanized monoclonal antibody, conjugated to the potent topoisomerase I inhibitor SN-38, with antineoplastic activity. The monoclonal antibody moiety of antibody-drug conjugate IMMU-130 selectively binds to carcinoembryonic cell adhesion molecule 5 (CEACAM5), which is abundantly expressed on the surface of a majority of solid tumors. Upon internalization and proteolytic cleavage, SN-38, the active metabolite of irinotecan, inhibits the activity of topoisomerase I in the tumor cells, eventually inhibiting both DNA replication and transcription and leading to tumor cell apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

LaBID

(Other name for: theophylline)

lacosamide

A functionalized amino acid compound specifically synthesized as an anticonvulsive drug to use as add-on therapy for partial-onset seizures with antinociceptive and neuroprotective activities. Lacosamide selectively enhances slow inactivation of voltage-gated sodium channels without affecting fast inactivation, thereby stabilizing hyperexcitabe neuronal membranes. Furthermore, this agent binds to collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP2; DPYSL2), a cytosolic phosphoprotein expressed in most tissues. In the nervous system, CRMP2 acts as a mediator of growth cone collapse and modifies axon number, length, and neuronal polarity. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Lactobacillus acidophilus probiotic

A probiotic containing the bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus with potential antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activities. As a dietary supplement, Lactobacillus acidophilus (L. acidophilus), a naturally-occurring bacteria, may improve digestion and help maintain adequate colonization of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract by modulating the composition of the normal microflora. Because it produces lactic acid and hydrogen peroxide and other substances during fermentation, this bacterium creates an acidic environment unfavorable to pathogens such as Candida albicans. In addition, during colonization of the GI tract, L. acidophilus may form a protective barrier, preventing attachment of pathogens. Dietary supplementation with this bacterium has been shown to enhance natural and acquired immunity in mice. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Lactobacillus acidophilus/estriol vaginal tablet

A vaginal tablet containing a low dose of the estrogen hormone estriol and lyophilized lactobacillus acidophilus, with hormone replacement and vaginal flora restoring activity. Upon vaginal application, estriol may restore estrogen levels locally and may relieve symptoms caused by estrogen deficiency; the Lactobacillus acidophilus may be able to restore the vaginal Lactobacillus flora. Check for active clinical trials using this agent.

Lactobacillus acidophilus/Streptococcus thermophilus/Bifidobacterium lactis/L. rhamnosus/B. longum/B. bifidum-based probiotic supplement

A nutritional supplement containing probiotic cultures of Lactobacillus acidophilus (L. acidophilus), L. rhamnosus Streptococcus thermophilus, Bifidobacterium lactis, (B. lactis), B. longum and B. bifidum, with gastrointestinal (GI) protective and immunomodulating activities. Upon oral administration, the bacteria in this probiotic supplement help maintain adequate colonization of the GI tract and modulate the composition of the normal microflora. Upon colonization of the GI tract, the probiotic bacteria form a protective barrier that helps maintain the integrity of the epithelial barrier. This will interfere with the attachment of pathogenic bacteria and other harmful substances, prevent inflammation and improve GI function. Check for active clinical trials using this agent.

Lactobacillus brevis CD2 lozenge

A lozenge containing an extract from the Lactobacillus brevis (L. brevis) with potential anti-inflammatory activity. As L. brevis CD2 contains high levels of arginine deiminase, which catalyzes the conversion of arginine to citrulline and ammonia, administration of this lozenge leads to hydrolysis of arginine in the oral cavity. The growth of bacteria, which depends on arginine, is halted, polyamine biosynthesis is reduced and the production of nitric oxide (NO) is reduced. The reduction in NO generation may further prevent inflammation in the oral cavity. Therefore, this agent may be able to reduce chemo- and radiotherapy-induced mucositis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

lactobacillus fermented extract

A proprietary dietary supplement. Lactobacillus fermented extract is made from soymilk fermented by several strains of lactobacillus and yeast via a symbiotic co-culturing technology. The composition of the agent includes amino acids, vitamins, minerals, fatty acids, isoflavones, and saponins. Lactobacillus fermented extract may support healthy intestinal function. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Lactobacillus plantarum 299v/Lactobacillus acidophilus/Bifidobacterium lactis probiotic supplement

A powder-based, probiotic supplement drink containing the non-pathogenic microorganisms Lactobacillus plantarum 299v, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Bifidobacterium lactis, with potential immunomodulating and protective activities. Upon oral ingestion, the naturally-occurring bacterial components in this dietary supplement may improve digestion and help maintain adequate colonization of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract by modulating the composition of the normal microflora. During colonization in the GI tract, the bacteria may form a protective intestinal barrier which may prevent damage to the mucosal epithelia caused by toxins and attachment of potential pathogens, thereby protecting against infections. In addition, this agent may reduce the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and may potentiate natural and acquired immunity. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Lactobacillus plantarum strain 299

A nutritional supplement containing the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum 299 (Lp 299) with potential antimicrobial, immune-boosting, and anti-inflammatory activities. Upon oral ingestion, Lp 299 adheres to the intestinal mucosa, modulates the composition of the normal microflora, helps maintain adequate colonization of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and improves digestion and metabolism. Upon colonization of the GI tract, the probiotic may form a protective barrier, thereby preventing attachment of pathogens, protecting against infections and boosting the immune system. In addition, Lp 299 stimulates the secretion of protective mucin and produces lactic acid and hydrogen peroxide as well as other substances, thereby creating an acidic environment which prevents growth of pathogens. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Lactobacillus plantarum strain 299v

A nutritional supplement containing a strain of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum 299v (Lp 299v) with potential antimicrobial, immune-boosting, and anti-inflammatory activities. Upon oral ingestion, L. plantarum strain 299v adheres to the intestinal mucosa, modulates the composition of the normal microflora, helps maintain adequate colonization of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and improves digestion and metabolism. Upon colonization of the GI tract, the probiotic may form a protective barrier, thereby preventing attachment of pathogens, protecting against infections and boosting the immune system. In addition, Lp 299v stimulates the secretion of protective mucin and produces lactic acid and hydrogen peroxide as well as other substances, thereby creating an acidic environment which prevents growth of pathogens. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG

A live specific strain of the species, Lactobacillus rhamnosus (a subspecies of Lactobacillus casei) with probiotic activity. When administered orally, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG adheres to the mucous membrane of the intestine and may help to restore the balance of the GI microflora; promote gut-barrier functions; diminish the production of carcinogenic compounds by other intestinal bacteria; and activate the innate immuneresponse and enhance adaptive immunity, especially during infections. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Lactobacillus rhamnosus/L. jensenii/L. crispatus/L. gasseri oral supplement

A nutritional supplement containing the probiotic Lactobacillus strains L. rhamnosus, L. jensenii, L. crispatus and L. gasseri with protective and immunomodulating activities. The bacteria in this probiotic supplement colonize the vaginal tract and help to maintain as well as restore the composition of the normal, healthy vaginal flora. The four Lactobacillus species form a protective barrier that helps both to maintain the integrity of the vaginal tract and prevent the attachment of pathogenic bacteria and other harmful substances, thereby protecting against genitourinary infections. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Lactobacillus-based probiotic capsule

A capsule containing a strain of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus with potential antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activities. As a dietary supplement, Lactobacillus, a naturally-occurring bacterium, may improve digestion and help maintain adequate colonization of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract by modulating the composition of the normal microflora. Because it produces lactic acid and hydrogen peroxide and other substances during fermentation, this bacterium creates an acidic environment that is unfavorable for pathogens. In addition, during colonization of the GI tract, this bacterium adheres to human epithelial cells and forms a protective barrier, thereby preventing the attachment of pathogens. Dietary supplementation with this bacterium has been shown to enhance innate and acquired immunity. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

lactoferrin-derived lytic peptide LTX-315

A peptide derived from human lactoferrin, with potential lytic and immunostimulating activities. Upon transdermal injection directly into the tumor, LTX315 may bind to the tumor cell membranes and subsequently lyse tumor cells, thereby inducing tumor cell necrosis. In turn, presentation of the tumor antigens to the immune system may induce systemic innate and adaptive immune responses mediated by anti-tumor natural killer (NK) cells, cytotoxic T lymphocytes, and natural killer T (NKT) cells. This may trigger an immune response against tumor associated antigens on tumors distant from the primary tumor. Human lactoferrin, a 692 amino acid glycoprotein, belongs to the transferrin family of metal-binding proteins. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

laetrile

Originally, the name laetrile was the contraction of laevo-mandelonitrile glucoside, a cyanogenic glycoside found naturally in some plants. Over the years the meaning of laetrile has changed. There are now preparations called Laetrile where amygdalin is the major constituent. Laetrile and amygdalin are often used interchangeably, but are different agents. Cyanide and benzaldehyde are metabolites of both laetrile and amygdalin. Both metabolites may possess antineoplastic properties. Laetrile has been used as an anticancer treatment in humans worldwide, but scientific evidence does not support its effectiveness. It is not approved for use in the United States. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

L-alanosine

An amino acid analogue and antibiotic derived from the bacterium Streptomyces alanosinicus with antimetabolite and potential antineoplastic activities. L-alanosine inhibits adenylosuccinate synthetase, which converts inosine monophospate (IMP) into adenylosuccinate, an intermediate in purine metabolism. L-alanosine-induced disruption of de novo purine biosynthesis is potentiated by methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (MTAP) deficiency. The clinical use of this agent may be limited by its toxicity profile. MTAP is a key enzyme in the adenine and methionine salvage pathways. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

lamellar body mimetic mouth spray LMS-611

A suspension-based oral spray containing multilamellar lipid vesicles in which the lipids mimic the lipidic composition of endogenous extra-alveolar lamellar bodies, with muco-restorative and protective activity against radiotherapy (RT)-induced xerostomia (RIX). Upon sublingual administration of the lamellar body mimetic LMS-611 using a spray, the lipids in this agent mimic the natural secretions of endogenous lamellar bodies. This makes mucus more fluid and may prevent dryness of the mouth. This restores saliva functions and makes it easier to chew, swallow and talk, and also prevents xerostomia-induced infections, tooth decay and tooth enamel decay. RT decreases saliva secretion by causing the destruction of the parotid and submandibular serous salivary glands and lamellar bodies. This results in thicker and more visco-adhesive saliva, which causes various xerostomia-induced symptoms; intact lamellar bodies maintain the fluidity of mucus and lubricate the mouth. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Lamictal

(Other name for: lamotrigine)

lamivudine

A synthetic nucleoside analogue with activity against hepatitis B virus (HBV) and HIV. Intracellularly, lamivudine is phosphorylated to its active metabolites, lamiduvine triphosphate (L-TP) and lamiduvine monophosphate (L-MP). In HIV, L-TP inhibits HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) via DNA chain termination after incorporation of the nucleoside analogue into viral DNA. In HBV, incorporation of L-MP into viral DNA by HBV polymerase results in DNA chain termination. L-TP is a weak inhibitor of mammalian DNA polymerases alpha and beta, and mitochondrial DNA polymerase. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

lamotrigine

A synthetic phenyltriazine with antiepileptic and analgesic properties. Lamotrigine enhances the action of gamma-aminobutyric acid, an inhibitory neurotransmitter, which may result in a reduction of pain-related transmission of signals along nerve fibers. This agent may also inhibit voltage-gated sodium channels, suppress glutamate release, and inhibit serotonin reuptake. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Lanoxin

(Other name for: digoxin)

lanreotide acetate

The acetate salt of a synthetic cyclic octapeptide analogue of somatostatin. Lanreotide binds to somatostatin receptors (SSTR), specifically SSTR-2 and also to SSTR-5 with a lesser affinity. However, compared to octreotide, this agent is less potent in inhibiting the release of growth hormone from the pituitary gland. Furthermore, lanreotide has an acute effect on decreasing circulating total and free insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I). This agent is usually given as a prolonged-release microparticle or Autogel formulation for the treatment of acromegaly and to relieve the symptoms of neuroendocrine tumors. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

lanreotide acetate copolymer microparticles

A prolonged-release depot suspension of microparticles containing the acetate salt of lanreotide, a synthetic peptide analog of the naturally occurring somatostatin, and copolymers. Lanreotide inhibits the secretion of growth hormone (GH) by binding to pituitary somatostatin receptors, and may inhibit various other hormones, including thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and the gastroenteropancreatic hormones insulin, glucagon and gastrin. This agent has a much longer duration of action than natural somatostatin and is selective towards the inhibition of growth hormone. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Lanreotide Autogel

(Other name for: lanreotide long-acting aqueous gel)

lanreotide long-acting aqueous gel

A long-acting aqueous gel preparation of lanreotide, a synthetic cyclic octapeptide analogue of somatostatin. Lanreotide inhibits the secretion of growth hormone (GH) by binding to pituitary somatostatin receptors, and may inhibit the release of various other hormones, including thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and the gastroenteropancreatic hormones insulin, glucagon and gastrin. This agent also decreases circulating total and free insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I). Lanreotide exhibits a high binding affinity for somatostatin receptor 2 (SSTR-2) and a lesser binding affinity for SSTR-5. However, compared to octreotide, this agent is less potent in inhibiting the release of growth hormone from the pituitary gland. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

lapatinib ditosylate

The ditosylate salt of lapatinib, a synthetic, orally-active quinazoline with potential antineoplastic activity. Lapatinib reversibly blocks phosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), ErbB2, and the Erk-1 and-2 and AKT kinases; it also inhibits cyclin D protein levels in human tumor cell lines and xenografts. EGFR and ErbB2 have been implicated in the growth of various tumor types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

lapuleucel-T

A cell-based vaccine targets tumors expressing the HER2/neu marker. HER-2/neu is a growth factor receptor, and its overexpression has been associated with a number of cancers including breast, ovarian, colon and lung cancers. APC8024 comprise of autologous antigen-presenting peripheral blood mononuclear cells (APCs) that have been exposed to HER2/neu protein and can be administered to the patient. These cells may stimulate an antitumor T-cell response to cancer cells expressing HER2/neu. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Laradopa

(Other name for: levodopa)

largetrifoliolious bugbane rhizome supplement

A proprietary tablet formulation containing an extract from Largetrifoliolious Bugbane rhizome (Shengma), the dried root of Cimicifuga sp., with potential use for relieving menopausal symptoms. The Largetrifoliolious bugbane rhizome supplement contains total saponins, including phytoestrogens that can modulate estrogen receptor signaling. This supplement is used to reduce disease symptoms, such as sweating, toothache, headache, ulcers, and insomnia. In women, this supplement may be used to reduce symptoms related to menopause. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

L-arginine/Korean ginseng/ Gingko biloba/damiana-based supplement

An amino acid and herbal supplement with libido-enhancing activity. L-arginine/korean ginseng/Ginkgo biloba/damiana-based supplement contains a blend of the amino acid L-arginine and the herbs Korean ginseng, Ginkgo biloba, and damiana (Turnera aphrodisiaca) in addition to 14 other vitamins and minerals. The semi-essential amino acid L-arginine is a precursor for nitric oxide (NO); Korean ginseng may enhance the conversion of L-arginine into NO by NO synthase; and Ginkgo biloba may promote microvascular circulation. This agent may increase NO production, resulting in vasodilatation and an enhanced circulation critical to sexual function and arousal. The damiana component may exert an anxiolytic effect and stimulate sexual behavior. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Larodopa

(Other name for: levodopa)

laromustine

A sulfonyl hydrazine prodrug with antineoplastic activity. Laromustine releases the DNA chloroethylating agent 90CE after entering the blood stream; 90CE chloroethylates alkylates the 06 position of guanine, resulting in DNA crosslinking, strand breaks, chromosomal aberrations, and disruption of DNA synthesis. Intracellular metabolism of this agent also releases methyl isocyanate which inhibits 06-alkyl-guanine transferase, an enzyme involved with DNA repair. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

larotaxel

A semi-synthetic derivative of the taxane 10-deacetylbaccatin III with potential antineoplastic activities. Larotaxel binds to tubulin, promoting microtubule assembly and stabilization and preventing microtubule depolymerization, thereby inhibiting cell proliferation. As it represents poor substrate for P-glycoprotein-related drug resistance mechanisms, this agent may be useful for treating multi-drug resistant tumors. Larotaxel penetrates the blood brain barrier. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Lasix

(Other name for: furosemide)

L-Asnase

(Other name for: asparaginase)

Latisse

(Other name for: bimatoprost ophthalmic solution)

Laudicon

(Other name for: hydromorphone hydrochloride)

Lazanda

(Other name for: fentanyl citrate pectin-based nasal spray)

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