Drug Dictionary


cabazitaxel

A semi-synthetic derivative of the natural taxoid 10-deacetylbaccatin III with potential antineoplastic activity. Cabazitaxel binds to and stabilizes tubulin, resulting in the inhibition of microtubule depolymerization and cell division, cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase, and the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. Unlike other taxane compounds, this agent is a poor substrate for the membrane-associated, multidrug resistance (MDR), P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux pump and may be useful for treating multidrug-resistant tumors. In addition, cabazitaxel penetrates the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

cabergoline

A synthetic ergoline derivative and a long-acting dopamine receptor agonist with high affinity for the dopamine D2 receptor. Cabergoline exerts an inhibitory effect on prolactin secretion by acting on dopamine receptors present in pituitary lactotrophs. This drug also binds to dopamine D2 receptors in the corpus striatum, thereby mimicking the actions of dopamine on motor control. Cabergoline also possesses antioxidant and neuroprotective properties due to its free radical scavenging activity. Cabergoline is used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease and in the treatment of hyperprolactinemia. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Cabometyx

(Other name for: cabozantinib-s-malate)

cabozantinib-s-malate

The s-malate salt form of cabozantinib, an orally bioavailable, small molecule receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. Cabozantinib strongly binds to and inhibits several RTKs, which are often overexpressed in a variety of cancer cell types, including hepatocyte growth factor receptor (MET), RET (rearranged during transfection), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor types 1 (VEGFR-1), 2 (VEGFR-2), and 3 (VEGFR-3), mast/stem cell growth factor (KIT), FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT-3), TIE-2 (TEK tyrosine kinase, endothelial), tropomyosin-related kinase B (TRKB) and AXL. This may result in an inhibition of both tumor growth and angiogenesis, and eventually lead to tumor regression. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

cadazolid

An oxazolidinone-type antibiotic, with activity against gram-positive bacteria, including Clostridium difficile. Although the exact mode of action through which cadazolid exerts its effect has yet to be fully elucidated, upon administration, this agent inhibits bacterial protein synthesis and leads to bacterial cell death. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

CAF regimen

A chemotherapy regimen consisting of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin hydrochloride (Adriamycin), and fluorouracil, which may be used in the adjuvant setting for the treatment of nonmetastatic breast cancer or alone for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer. (NCI Thesaurus)

caffeine

A naturally occurring xanthine derivative with central nervous system (CNS) stimulating activity. Due to the structural similarity to adenosine, caffeine binds to and blocks adenosine receptors, thereby preventing the inhibitory effects of adenosine on nerve cells. This leads to stimulation of medullary, vagal, vasomotor, and respiratory centers in the brain; and the release of epinephrine. Physiologic responses can include bradycardia, tachycardia, vasoconstriction, CNS excitablility, increased respiratory rate, increased blood pressure, increased blood flow to muscles, decreased blood flow to skin and inner organs, and release of glucose by the liver. Due to the interaction between adenosine A2A and dopamine D2 receptors, caffeine can also indirectly increase the levels of dopamine in the brain. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

CAIX inhibitor DTP348

An orally bioavailable, nitroimidazole-based sulfamide, carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, CAIX inhibitor DTP348 inhibits tumor-associated CAIX, a hypoxia-inducible transmembrane glycoprotein that catalyzes the reversible reaction and rapid interconversion of carbon dioxide and water to carbonic acid, protons, and bicarbonate ions. This prevents the acidification of the tumors extracellular microenvironment and decreases the intracellular pH. This results in increased cell death in CAIX-expressing, hypoxic tumors. In addition, DTP348, through its nitroimidazole moiety, is able to sensitize hypoxic tumor cells to irradiation. CAIX is overexpressed in various tumors and plays a key role in intra- and extracellular pH regulation, cancer cell progression, survival, migration and invasion. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

calaspargase pegol

An intravenous formulation containing E. coli-derived L-asparaginase II conjugated with succinimidyl carbonate monomethoxypolyethylene glycol (SC-PEG), with potential antineoplastic activity. L-asparaginase hydrolyzes L-asparagine to L-aspartic acid and ammonia, thereby depleting cells of asparagine; asparagine depletion blocks protein synthesis and tumor cell proliferation, especially in the G1 phase of the cell cycle and ultimately induces tumor cell death. Asparagine is critical to protein synthesis in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells which, unlike normal cells, cannot synthesize this amino acid due to the absence of the enzyme asparagine synthase. Pegylation decreases enzyme antigenicity and increases its half life. SC is used as a PEG linker to facilitate attachment to asparaginase and enhances the stability of the formulation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

calcipotriene

A synthetic vitamin D derivative usually formulated for topical dermatological use, antipsoriatic calcipotriene (calcipotriol) competes equally with active 1,25-hydroxy-2D3 (the natural form of vitamin D) for 1,25-hydroxy-2D3 receptors in regulating cell proliferation and differentiation. It induces differentiation and suppresses proliferation of keratinocytes, reversing abnormal keratinocyte changes in psoriasis, and leads to normalization of epidermal growth. Check for active clinical trials using this agent.

calcitriol

A synthetic physiologically-active analog of vitamin D, specifically the vitamin D3 form. Calcitriol regulates calcium in vivo by promoting absorption in the intestine, reabsorption in the kidneys, and, along with parathyroid hormone, regulation of bone growth. A calcitriol receptor-binding protein appears to exist in the mucosa of human intestine. Calcitriol also induces cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle, cell differentiation, and apoptosis, resulting in inhibition of proliferation of some tumor cell types. This agent may be chemopreventive for colon and prostate cancers. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

calcium aluminosilicate anti-diarrheal

A clay compound consisting of aluminosilicate and calcium ions with potential antidiarrheal activity. Calcium aluminosilicate anti-diarrheal consists of microscopically large flat plates of aluminosilicate separated by calcium ions that may sorb toxic chemotherapeutic drugs and their metabolites and inflammatory proteins such as TNF-alpha, which may help minimize chemotherapy-mediated or radiation therapy-mediated damage to the intestinal epithelium and so therapy-related diarrhea. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

calcium carbonate

The carbonic salt of calcium (CaCO3). Calcium carbonate is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis, as an antacid in gastric hyperacidity for temporary relief of indigestion and heartburn, and as a calcium supplement for preventing and treating osteoporosis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

calcium chloride

A crystalline, white substance, soluble in water, calcium chloride is the chloride salt of calcium, a bivalent metallic element with many crucial biological roles. Calcium is a major constituent of the skeleton but plays many roles as an intracellular and plasma ion as well. In medicine, calcium chloride is also used as a 10% solution in injection, for calcium replenishment. Check for active clinical trials using this agent.

calcium citrate

The citrate salt of calcium. An element necessary for normal nerve, muscle, and cardiac function, calcium as the citrate salt helps to maintain calcium balance and prevent bone loss when taken orally. This agent may also be chemopreventive for colon and other cancers. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

calcium glucarate

The orally bioavailable calcium salt of glucaric acid, a natural substance found in many fruits and vegetables, with potential chemopreventive activity. After absorption, glucaric acid is converted to d-glucaro-1,4-lactone which inhibits beta-glucuronidase, an enzyme found in certain bacteria that reside in the human gut. The detoxification of various toxin and sex hormone metabolites depends upon their conjugation to glucuronic acid in the liver and subsequent excretion of glucuronic acid conjugated metabolites in the bile. Bacterial beta-glucuronidase may catalyze the deconjugation of glucuronic acid conjugated metabolites of toxins and sex hormones, thus prolonging exposure to unconjugated and unexcreted toxin and sex hormone metabolites. Accordingly, calcium glucarate supplementation may indirectly inhibit sex hormone-mediated and toxin-mediated tumorigenesis by inhibiting bacterial beta-glucuronidase activity. Elevated bacterial beta-glucuronidase activity may be associated with an increased risk for sex hormone-mediated and toxin-mediated cancers such as breast, prostate, and colon cancers. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

calcium gluconate

The gluconate salt of calcium. An element or mineral necessary for normal nerve, muscle, and cardiac function, calcium as the gluconate salt helps to maintain calcium balance and prevent bone loss when taken orally. This agent may also be chemopreventive for colon and other cancers. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

calcium-41 chloride aqueous solution

An orally bioavailable aqueous solution containing the chloride salt of the radioisotope calcium-41 (41Ca) with phosphate-binding and radioisotopic activities. Upon administration of calcium-41 chloride aqueous solution, calcium-41 is preferentially taken up by osteoblasts, which generate mineralized osteoid containing calcium. Calcium-41 accumulation and turnover in bone can be measured with bone scintigraphy and urinary isotope excretion. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

calcium-46 chloride aqueous solution

An orally bioavailable aqueous solution containing the chloride salt of the radioisotope calcium-46 (46Ca) with phosphate-binding and radioisotopic activities. Upon administration of calcium-46 chloride aqueous solution, calcium-46 is preferentially taken up by osteoblasts, which generate mineralized osteoid containing calcium. Calcium-46 accumulation and turnover in bone can be measured with bone scintigraphy and urinary isotope excretion testing. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Calculus bovis/Moschus/Olibanum/Myrrha capsule

An orally available traditional Chinese medicine (TCM)-based capsule formulation containing Calculus bovis, the dried gallstones of cattle, Moschus, also referred to as deer musk, the resin Olibanum and the resin Myrrha, with potential antineoplastic and chemopreventive activities. Although the exact mechanisms of action through which the active ingredients in the Calculus bovis/Moschus/Olibanum/Myrrha capsule elicit their effects have yet to be fully elucidated, they may, upon intake, exert their antineoplastic activity through modulation of the immune system, inhibition of tumor cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Caldolor

(Other name for: ibuprofen intravenous)

Calendula officinalis/Plantago major/Cochlearia armoracia/ Hamamelis virginiana herbal toothpaste

A phytochemical-based toothpaste containing Calendula officinalis, Plantago major, Cochlearia armoracia, Hamamelis virginiana with potential soothing activity. Calendula officinalis/Plantago major/Cochlearia armoracia/ Hamamelis virginiana herbal toothpaste may relieve the discomfort associated with radiation-induced mucositis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

calfactant

A sterile suspension composed of an extract of bovine pulmonary surfactant with surfactant activity. Calfactant contains phospholipids, neutral lipids, and hydrophobic surfactant-associated proteins B (SP-B) and C (SP-C). Upon intratracheal administration, this agent, mimicking endogenous pulmonary surfactant, lines the alveoli and smallest bronchioles, keeping alveoli open during expiration by lowering surface tension. Resulting improvements in lung compliance and respiratory gas exchange may lead to improvements in ventilation and oxygenation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

calusterone

A 17-alkylated orally active androgenic steroid. Calusterone may alter the metabolism of estradiol and reduce estrogen production. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Campath

(Other name for: alemtuzumab)

Camptogen

(Other name for: rubitecan)

Camptosar

(Other name for: irinotecan hydrochloride)

camptothecin analogue TLC388

A synthetic analogue of camptothecin with potential antineoplastic and radio-sensitizing activities. Camptothecin analogue TLC388 selectively stabilizes topoisomerase I-DNA covalent complexes during S-phase, thereby inhibiting religation of topoisomerase I-mediated single-strand DNA breaks and producing potentially lethal double-strand DNA breaks when encountered by the DNA replication machinery. Topoisomerase I relaxes negative super-coiled DNA during replication and transcription. This agent has been chemically modified to enhance the potency and stability of camptothecin. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

camptothecin-20(S)-O-propionate hydrate

The hydrated, crystalline propionate ester (attached in position C-20) prodrug of camptothecin, an alkaloid isolated from the Chinese tree Camptotheca acuminata, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon entry into cells, camptothecin-20(S)-O-propionate is hydrolyzed by esterases into the active form camptothecin. Camptothecin selectively stabilizes topoisomerase I-DNA covalent complexes, thereby inhibiting religation of topoisomerase I-mediated single-strand DNA breaks and producing potentially lethal double-strand DNA breaks when encountered by the DNA replication machinery, thus inhibiting DNA replication and triggering apoptotic cell death. Camptothecin readily undergoes hydrolysis at physiological pH, changing its conformation from the active, S-configured lactone structure to an inactive carboxylate form. The ester chainin the vicinity of the S-configured lactone moiety, a key determinantfor the chemotherapeutic efficacy of the camptothecins, inhibits protein binding, rendering this agent resistant to hydrolysis and prolonging its half-life. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

canarypox-hIL-12 melanoma vaccine

A vaccine consisting of a replication-defective recombinant canarypox virus (ALVAC) that encodes the gene for human interleukin-12 (hIL-12). Produced mainly by B-cells, IL-12 is an endogenous cytokine that activates natural killer (NK) cells, promotes cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses, induces the release of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), and may exhibit antitumor and anti-angiogenic effects. Vaccination with canarypox-hIL-12 melanoma vaccine may stimulate the host immune system to mount an immune response against tumor cells, thereby inhibiting tumor growth and/or metastasis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

cancer peptide vaccine S-588410

A cancer peptide vaccine containing five human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A*2402-restricted epitope peptides derived from as of yet not disclosed oncoantigens, with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration of the cancer peptide vaccine S-588410, the peptides may stimulate a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against cancer cells expressing the antigens. This decreases proliferation of susceptible tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

cancer stemness kinase inhibitor BBI503

An orally available cancer cell stemness kinase inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. Although the exact target has not been fully elucidated, BBI503 targets and inhibits one or more pathways involved in cancer stem cell survival. As a result, cancer stem cell (CSC) growth as well as heterogeneous cancer cell growth is inhibited. CSCs, self-replicating cells able to differentiate into heterogeneous cancer cells, appear to be responsible for both tumor relapse and metastasis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Cancidas

(Other name for: caspofungin acetate)

candesartan cilexetil

A synthetic, benzimidazole-derived angiotensin II receptor antagonist prodrug with antihypertensive activity. After hydrolysis of candesartan cilexetil to candesartan during gastrointestinal absorption, candesartan selectively competes with angiotensin II for the binding of the angiotensin II receptor subtype 1 (AT1) in vascular smooth muscle, blocking angiotensin II-mediated vasoconstriction and inducing vasodilatation. In addition, antagonism of AT1 in the adrenal gland inhibits angiotensin II-stimulated aldosterone synthesis and secretion by the adrenal cortex; sodium and water excretion increase, followed by a reduction in plasma volume and blood pressure. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

canertinib dihydrochloride

The hydrochloride salt of an orally bio-available quinazoline with potential antineoplastic and radiosensitizing activities. Canertinib binds to the intracellular domains of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases (ErbB family), irreversibly inhibiting their signal transduction functions and resulting in tumor cell apoptosis and suppression of tumor cell proliferation. This agent also acts as a radiosensitizing agent and displays synergistic activity with other chemotherapeutic agents. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

canfosfamide hydrochloride

The hydrochloride salt of a modified glutathione analogue with potential antineoplastic activity. Canfosfamide is selectively activated by glutathione S-transferase P1-1 into an alkylating metabolite that forms covalent linkages with nucleophilic centers in tumor cell DNA, which may induce a cellular stress response and cytotoxicity, and decrease tumor proliferation. S-transferase P1-1 is an enzyme that is overexpressed in many human malignancies. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Cannabics SR

(Other name for: Cannabis extract oil SR capsule)

Cannabics SR capsules

(Other name for: Cannabis extract oil SR capsule)

cannabidiol

A phytocannabinoid derived from Cannabis species, which is devoid of psychoactive activity, with analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antineoplastic and chemopreventive activities. Upon administration, cannabidiol (CBD) exerts its anti-proliferative, anti-angiogenic and pro-apoptotic activity through various mechanisms, which likely do not involve signaling by cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1), CB2, or vanilloid receptor 1. CBD stimulates endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and inhibits AKT/mTOR signaling, thereby activating autophagy and promoting apoptosis. In addition, CBD enhances the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which further enhances apoptosis. This agent also upregulates the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP1) and decreases the expression of inhibitor of DNA binding 1 (ID-1). This inhibits cancer cell invasiveness and metastasis. CBD may also activate the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 2 (TRPV2), which may increase the uptake of various cytotoxic agents in cancer cells. The analgesic effect of CBD is mediated through the binding of this agent to and activation of CB1. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

cannabinol

A cannabinoid isolated from the plant Cannabis that is a metabolite of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), with potential immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory activities. Cannabinol preferentially binds to the cannabinoid G-protein coupled receptor CB2, which is mainly expressed on a variety of immune cells, such as T-cells, B-cells, macrophages and dendritic cells. Stimulation of CB2 receptors by cannabinol may both trigger apoptosis in these cells and inhibit the production of a variety of cytokines. Cannabinol exerts minimal affinity for CB1 and has a weak effect on the central nervous system. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

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