Drug Dictionary


abagovomab

A murine IgG1 monoclonal anti-idiotype antibody, containing a variable antigen-binding region that functionally mimics the three-dimensional structure of a specific epitope on the ovarian cancer tumor-associated antigen CA-125, with potential antineoplastic activity. With a variable antigen-binding region that acts as a surrogate antigen for CA-125, abagovomab may stimulate the host immune system to elicit humoral and cellular immune responses against CA-125-positive tumor cells, resulting in inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

abarelix

A synthetic decapeptide and antagonist of naturally occurring gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). Abarelix directly and competitively binds to and blocks the gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor in the anterior pituitary gland, thereby inhibiting the secretion and release of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). In males, the inhibition of LH secretion prevents the release of testosterone. As a result, this may relieve symptoms associated with prostate hypertrophy or prostate cancer, since testosterone is required to sustain prostate growth. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

abatacept

A soluble fusion protein consisting of the extracellulardomain of human cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) linked toa modified Fc (hinge, CH2, and CH3 domains) portion of human immunoglobulin G1(IgG1) with immunosuppressive activity. Abatacept binds CD80 and CD86 on antigen presenting cells (APCs), blocking interaction with CD28 on T lymphocytes, which initiates a co-stimulatory signal required for full activation of T lymphocytes. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

ABBV-221

An intravenously-administered agent capable of modulating the activity of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), with potential antineoplastic activity. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Abegrin

(Other name for: etaracizumab)

Abelcet

(Other name for: liposomal amphotericin B)

abemaciclib

An orally available cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor that targets the CDK4 (cyclin D1) and CDK6 (cyclin D3) cell cycle pathway, with potential antineoplastic activity. Abemaciclib specifically inhibits CDK4 and 6, thereby inhibiting retinoblastoma (Rb) protein phosphorylation in early G1. Inhibition of Rb phosphorylation prevents CDK-mediated G1-S phase transition, thereby arresting the cell cycle in the G1 phase, suppressing DNA synthesis and inhibiting cancer cell growth. Overexpression of the serine/threonine kinases CDK4/6, as seen in certain types of cancer, causes cell cycle deregulation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Aberel

(Other name for: tretinoin)

abexinostat

A novel, broad-spectrum hydroxamic acid-based inhibitor of histone deacetylase (HDAC) with potential antineoplastic activity. Abexinostat inhibits several isoforms of HDAC, resulting in an accumulation of highly acetylated histones, followed by the induction of chromatin remodeling; the selective transcription of tumor suppressor genes; and the tumor suppressor protein-mediated inhibition of tumor cell division and induction of tumor cell apoptosis. HDAC, upregulated in many tumor types, is an an enzyme that is responsible for the deacetylation of chromatin histone proteins. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

abiraterone acetate

An orally active acetate salt of the steroidal compound abiraterone with antiandrogen activity. Abiraterone inhibits the enzymatic activity of steroid 17alpha-monooxygenase (17alpha-hydrolase/C17,20 lyase complex), a member of the cytochrome p450 family that catalyzes the 17alpha-hydroxylation of steroid intermediates involved in testosterone synthesis. Administration of this agent may suppress testosterone production by both the testes and the adrenals to castrate-range levels. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Abitrexate

(Other name for: methotrexate)

Ablavar

(Other name for: gadofosveset trisodium)

Abraxane

(Other name for: paclitaxel albumin-stabilized nanoparticle formulation)

absorbable adhesion barrier gel

An isotonic, sterile, absorbable adhesion barrier gel composed of polyethylene oxide and sodium carboxymethylcellulose, with protective activity. Upon application of a single layer into the uterine cavity at the end of any hysteroscopic surgery, the absorbable adhesion barrier gel may provide a protective barrier which protects the traumatized tissue and allows for healing. This gel may therefore prevent the formation of post-surgical intrauterine adhesions. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

absorbable fibrin sealant patch

A sterile, absorbable surgical sealing patch composed of an equine collagen sponge coated with the coagulation factors human fibrinogen and human thrombin, with potential hemostatic activity. Applied on the wound tissue, the absorbable fibrin sealant patch adheres to the tissue and the solid fibrinogen and thrombin dissolve upon contact with the physiological fluid. In turn, fibrinogen is converted to fibrin monomers by thrombin, and polymerize to form a fibrin clot at the wound surface. This causes the patch to adhere to the wound surface and promotes tissue sealing. This may reduce lymphatic drainage and prevent seroma formation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

absorbable gelatin sponge

A sterile hemostatic agent composed of purified porcine-derived gelatin. In regional chemotherapy, absorbable gelatin sponge may be used to embolize arteries in the region of a tumor in order to block or retard blood flow; this blockage results in a locally increased concentration of chemotherapeutic agents delivered to the tumor when chemotherapeutic agents are infused into the embolized arterial circulation upstream of the blockage. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

ABT-510

A synthetic peptide that mimics the anti-angiogenic activity of the endogenous protein thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1). ABT-510 inhibits the actions of several pro-angiogenic growth factors important to tumor neovascularization; these pro-angiogenic growth factors include vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), and interleukin 8 (IL-8). Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

ABT-751

An orally bioavailable antimitotic sulfonamide. ABT-751 binds to the colchicine-binding site on beta-tubulin and inhibits the polymerization of microtubules, thereby preventing tumor cell replication. This agent also disrupts tumor neovascularization, reducing tumor blood flow and so inducing a cytotoxic effect. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

ABVD regimen

A chemotherapy regimen consisting of doxorubicin hydrochloride (Adriamycin), bleomycin, vinblastine and dacarbazine, used alone or in combination with radiation therapy, for the primary treatment of Hodgkin lymphoma. (NCI Thesaurus)

ABVE regimen

A regimen containing doxorubicin hydrochloride, bleomycin sulfate, vincristine sulfate and etoposide used in combination with radiation therapy for the treatment of low-risk, childhood Hodgkin lymphoma. (NCI Thesaurus)

ABVE-PC regimen

A regimen consisting of doxorubicin, bleomycin, vincristine, etoposide, prednisone and cyclophosphamide, given in combination with radiation therapy and used for the treatment of high-risk, childhood Hodgkin's lymphoma. (NCI Thesaurus)

AC regimen

A chemotherapy regimen consisting of doxorubicin hydrochloride (Adriamycin) and cyclophosphamide used in the adjuvant setting for the primary treatment of breast cancer. This regimen is also used for the treatment of recurrent and metastatic breast cancer. (NCI Thesaurus)

acadesine

A 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide (AICA) riboside, a purine nucleoside analog, and a nucleotide biosynthesis precursor with B cell pro-apoptotic activity. Following cellular uptake, acadesine is phosphorylated to AICA ribotide (ZMP), which mimics 5'-adenosine monophosphate (AMP). Both AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and AMPK kinase (AMPKK) are activated by ZMP, which appears to be necessary for the induction of apoptosis. Acadesine-induced apoptosis also appears to require cytochrome c release from mitochondria and caspase activation and is p53-independent. However, the exact mechanism of acadesine-induced apoptosis is unknown. T cells are significantly less susceptible than B cells to acadesine-induced apoptosis. AMPK regulates several cellular systems including the cellular uptake of glucose, the beta-oxidation of fatty acids, protein synthesis, and the biogenesis of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and mitochondria. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

acai berry juice

A juice product obtained from the fruit of the acai palm tree (Euterpe oleracea) with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and potential chemopreventive activities. Besides high amounts of vitamins, minerals and fatty acids, acai berry is rich in phytonutrients such as anthocyanins and flavones which are potent scavengers of reactive oxygen species. The fruit also contains high amounts of the flavone velutin which exhibits potent anti-inflammatory properties. Velutin is able to inhibit the degradation of the inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-kB), thereby blocking the activation of NF-kB, as well as inhibiting phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 and JNK. Inhibition of these processes results in suppression of the production of proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 6. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

acalabrutinib

An orally available inhibitor of Brutons tyrosine kinase (BTK) with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, acalabrutinib inhibits the activity of BTK and prevents the activation of the B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) signaling pathway. This prevents both B-cell activation and BTK-mediated activation of downstream survival pathways. This leads to an inhibition of the growth of malignant B cells that overexpress BTK. BTK, a member of the src-related BTK/Tec family of cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases, is overexpressed in B-cell malignancies; it plays an important role in B lymphocyte development, activation, signaling, proliferation and survival. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

acarbose

A pseudotetrasaccharide and inhibitor of alpha-glucosidase and pancreatic alpha-amylase with antihyperglycemic activity. Acarbose binds to and inhibits alpha-glucosidase, an enteric enzyme found in the brush border of the small intestines that hydrolyzes oligosaccharides and disaccharides into glucose and other monosaccharides. This prevents the breakdown of larger carbohydrates into glucose and decreases the rise in postprandial blood glucose levels. In addition, acarbose inhibits pancreatic alpha-amylase which hydrolyzes complex starches to oligosaccharides in the small intestines. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Accutane

(Other name for: isotretinoin)

Acelarin

(Other name for: gemcitabine-phosphoramidate NUC-1031)

acelullar cadaveric dermal matrix

A human dermis-derived allograft material. Acellular cadaveric dermal matrix (ACDM) is derived from human cadaveric dermis from which the epidermis, all viable cells and major histocompatibility class (MHC) II antigens have been removed to minimize alloimmunogenicity, while the dermal collagen matrix is preserved. ACDM may placed over wounds to aid as a substitute for skin when necessary such as for surgical reconstruction or for protection against wound exposure and breakdown and wound infection. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

acenocoumarol

A 4-hydroxycoumarin derivative with anticoagulant activity. As a vitamin K antagonist, acenocoumarol inhibits vitamin K epoxide reductase, thereby inhibiting the reduction of vitamin K and the availability of vitamin KH2. This prevents gamma carboxylation of glutamic acid residues near the N-terminals of the vitamin K-dependent clotting factors, including factor II, VII, IX, and X and anticoagulant proteins C and S. This prevents their activity and thus thrombin formation. Compared to other coumarin derivatives, acenocoumarol has a short half-life. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Aceon

(Other name for: perindopril erbumine)

acetaminophen

A p-aminophenol derivative with analgesic and antipyretic activities. Although the exact mechanism through which acetaminophen exert its effects has yet to be fully determined, acetaminophen may inhibit the nitric oxide (NO) pathway mediated by a variety of neurotransmitter receptors including N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and substance P, resulting in elevation of the pain threshold. The antipyretic activity may result from inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis and release in the central nervous system (CNS) and prostaglandin-mediated effects on the heat-regulating center in the anterior hypothalamus. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

acetic acid

A synthetic carboxylic acid with antibacterial and antifungal properties. Although its mechanism of action is not fully known, undissociated acetic acid may enhance lipid solubility allowing increased fatty acid accumulation on the cell membrane or in other cell wall structures. Acetic acid, as a weak acid, can inhibit carbohydrate metabolism resulting in subsequent death of the organism. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

acetohexamide

An intermediate-acting, first-generation sulfonylurea with hypoglycemic activity. Acetohexamide is metabolized in the liver to its active metabolite hydroxyhexamide. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

acetylcysteine

A synthetic N-acetyl derivative of the endogenous amino acid L-cysteine, a precursor of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione. Acetylcysteine regenerates liver stores of glutathione. This agent also reduces disulfide bonds in mucoproteins, resulting in liquification of mucus. Some evidence suggests that acetylcysteine may exert an anti-apoptotic effect due to its antioxidant activity, possibly preventing cancer cell development or growth. In addition, acetylcysteine has inhibited viral stimulation by reactive oxygen intermediates, thereby producing antiviral activity in HIV patients. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

acetylsalicylic acid

An orally administered non-steroidal antiinflammatory agent. Acetylsalicylic acid binds to and acetylates serine residues in cyclooxygenases, resulting in decreased synthesis of prostaglandin, platelet aggregation, and inflammation. This agent exhibits analgesic, antipyretic, and anticoagulant properties. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

acetylsalicylic acid/simvastatin/atenolol/ramipril/thiazide capsule

An orally bioavailable combination pill containing aspirin, simvastatin, atenolol, ramipril and thiazide with preventive activity against cardiovascular disease (CVD). Aspirin is a cyclooxygenase inhibitor with antiplatelet, analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory activities; simvastatin is a statin with a cholesterol lowering effect; and the beta-blocker atenolol as well as the ACE inhibitor ramipril and the thiazide diuretic all have blood pressure lowering activity. Upon oral administration of aspirin/simvastatin/atenolol/ramipril/thiazide capsule, the combined effects of the active ingredients in this formulation lower the risk of CVD. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Achromycin

(Other name for: tetracycline hydrochloride)

Aciphex

(Other name for: rabeprazole sodium)

acitretin

An orally-active metabolite of the synthetic aromatic retinoic acid agent etretinate with potential antineoplastic, chemopreventive, anti-psoratic, and embryotoxic properties. Acitretin activates nuclear retinoic acid receptors (RAR), resulting in induction of cell differentiation, inhibition of cell proliferation, and inhibition of tissue infiltration by inflammatory cells. This agent may also inhibit tumor angiogenesis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

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